Type of Publication

Deprecated: the @pub-type attribute is deprecated in favor of the @publication-format and @content-type attributes. Using the @publication-format and @content-type attributes separately enables the expression of both the format and the medium of the publication instead of forcing the selection of one or the other.

A combination of the format/medium of a document with one or more events from its lifecycle, for example, “epub” for publication in an electronic format or “ppub” for print publication.


The combination of format and medium in one attribute is a holdover from previous versions of this Tag Set. In this version of this Tag Set, there are two attributes that can be used to describe the history dates and publication dates of articles. The @date-type attribute records the type of event in the lifecycle, such as “accepted”, “published”, or “revised” dates. In addition, the @publication-format attribute records the type of format or media to which the event happened, such as “print”. In previous versions of this Tag Set, the two types of information were combined, so an attribute could say that an article was “ecorrected”, meaning that the article was in electronic form and that it was corrected. In this Tag Set, the attribute @date-type would take the value “corrected” and the @publication-format attribute would take the value “electronic” to convey the same information.

Attribute Values

In Elements

Text, numbers, or special charactersThe type of print or electronic publication, for example, “epub” for electronic publication.
Restriction: This is an optional attribute; there is no default.

Suggested usage

Historical Note: In this version of this Tag Set, the @publication-format attribute states the format/medium and the @date-type attribute names the lifecycle event. For previous versions of this Tag Set, the information on type of lifecycle date and format/media to which the event happened were combined in this attribute. A content creator may choose to keep this information combined, even in this Tag Set, and use the following values (which blend the type and format and are therefore no longer recommended) for this attribute:


Electronic publication (usually web, but also includes eBook, CD-ROM, or other electronic-only distribution)


Print publication


Both print and electronic publications


Electronic preprint dissemination


Print preprint dissemination


Corrected in electronic


Corrected in print


Retracted in electronic


Retracted in print