publication-format Format of Publication

Format or medium of the document (for example, “print”). This element is used in several senses:
  • to describe the format/medium for a publication date or other lifecycle date such as an acceptance date or a revision date,
  • to describe the format/medium for an ISSN or ISBN, and
  • to name the format/medium of the document being cited as part of a bibliographic reference.


For Use on Dates

In this Tag Set, there are two attributes that can be used to describe history dates and publication dates. The @date-type attribute records the type of event in the lifecycle, such as “accepted”, “published”, or “revised” dates. In addition, the @publication-format attribute records the type of format or media, for example, “print” or “electronic”, to which the event happened.

Best Practice

This attribute should be used when the value is known. Values may include such formats as “print”, “electronic”, “video”, “audio”, “ebook”, and “online-only”.
OPTIONAL on many elements; click for list and usage
Value Meaning
Text, numbers, or special characters The cited format, for example, “print”.
Restriction @publication-format is an optional attribute; there is no default.
Tagged Sample

In citations

<element-citation publication-type="book"
  publication-format="videocassette" publisher-type="gov">
 <source>Making maps in the brain</source>
 <publisher-loc>Bethesda (MD)</publisher-loc>
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