Summarized description of the content of a document or document component.
Many journal publishers request an abstract that is a very short summary of the major findings or conclusions of an article and limit this abstract to a paragraph or two. But some publishers require “long” or “summary” abstracts in which each section of the paper is summarized in a separate abstract section that has the same title as the article section being summarized. Such abstracts may be extensive, incorporating figures and tables. While the model for the element <abstract> has been made flexible enough to allow for these titled sections, it is expected that most abstracts will be much simpler and will contain one or more paragraphs.
For accessibility purposes, it is useful to provide a very short synopsis abstract (much like a Table of Contents blurb or a dek in some journals) whose purpose is to tell a non-sighted reader what the document is about. This abstract can be given the @abstract-type such as “meta-description”, “description”, or “dc:description” to indicate that, when making web pages from this XML, the abstract should be used to create the XHTML metadata description.
Models and Context
<!ELEMENT abstract %abstract-model; >
Expanded Content Model
(title?, (p)*, sec*)
Single paragraph abstract
<article dtd-version="1.3d2"> <front> <article-meta> ... <abstract> <p>We describe a method for cloning nucleic acid molecules onto the surfaces of 5-μm microbeads rather than in biological hosts. A unique tag sequence is attached to each molecule, and the tagged library is amplified. Unique tagging of the molecules is achieved by sampling a small fraction (1%) of a very large repertoire of tag sequences. The resulting library is hybridized to microbeads that each carry ≈10<sup>6</sup> strands complementary to one of the tags. About 10<sup>5</sup> copies of each molecule are collected on each microbead. ...</p> </abstract> <kwd-group kwd-group-type="author">...</kwd-group> </article-meta> </front> ... </article>
With interior sections
<article dtd-version="1.3d2"> <front> <article-meta> ... <abstract abstract-type="section"> <sec> <title>Objective</title> <p>To examine the effectiveness of day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly people.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Design</title> <p>Systematic review of 12 controlled clinical trials (available by January 1997) comparing day hospital care with comprehensive care (five trials), domiciliary care (four trials), or no comprehensive care (three trials).</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Subjects</title> <p>2867 elderly people.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Main outcome measures</title> <p>Death, institutionalisation, disability, global “poor outcome,” and use of resources.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Results</title> <p>Overall, there was no significant difference between day hospitals and alternative services ...</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions</title> <p>Day hospital care seems to be an effective service for elderly people ...</p> <p><boxed-text position="float"> <sec> <title>Key messages</title> <p>...</p> </sec> </boxed-text></p> </sec> </abstract> </article-meta> </front> ... </article>
@abstract-type differentiates multiple abstracts
... <article-meta> ... <abstract> <p>This is the third and last part of the volume devoted to solubility data of rare earth metal chlorides in water and in ternary and quaternary aqueous systems. Compilations of all available experimental data for each rare earth metal chloride are introduced with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a tabulated collection of all solubility results in water, a scheme of the water-rich part of the equilibrium ... Because the ternary and quaternary systems were almost never studied more than once, no critical evaluations or systematic comparisons of such data were possible. Simple chlorides (no complexes) of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu are treated as the input substances. The literature (including a thorough coverage of papers in Chinese and Russian) has been covered through the middle of 2008.</p> </abstract> <abstract abstract-type="short"> <p>The is the third and last part of the volume devoted to solubility data of rare earth metal chlorides in water and in ternary and quaternary aqueous systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal chloride with a corresponding critical evaluation. This part covers chlorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, with coverage of the literature through the middle of 2008.</p> </abstract> </article-meta> ...