<page-range> Page Ranges

Text describing discontinuous pagination (for example, 8-11, 14-19, 40).


The discontinuous page ranges “8-11, 14-19, 40” would be read as “a document begins on page 8, runs through 11, skips to pages 14 through 19, and concludes on page 40”.
The <page-range> element only supplements other page elements and DOES NOT replace <fpage> and <lpage>. The <fpage> element and the <lpage> element (where available) should always be tagged; infrastructures for linking references across publishers (such as that of Crossref) use first and last page information for a document as part of their identification process. Accordingly, material with a page range should be tagged:
<page-range>8-11, 14-19, 40</page-range>
Related Elements
A number of elements in the Suite relate to page numbers:
  • <fpage> names the page number on which a work begins;
  • <lpage> names the page number on which a work ends (which should be the same page number or a number larger than the starting page number);
  • <elocation-id> replaces the start and end page elements just described for electronic-only publications;
  • <page-range> records discontinuous page ranges; and
  • <page-count> holds the total page count, if the publisher has provided one. Typically this element records what the publisher said and makes no validity claim. The element <page-count> should be used only in metadata. The citation elements (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>) use the element <size> to tag the total page count of a cited work. (Historical Note: The deprecated <nlm-citation> still uses the <page-count> element.)
Best Practice: The <page-range> is intended to record supplementary information and should not be used in the place of the <fpage> and <lpage> elements, which are typically needed for citation matching. The <page-range> element is merely a text string, containing such material as “8-11, 14-19, 40”, which would mean that the document began on page 8, ran through 11, skipped to page 14, ran through 19, and concluded on page 40.

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  page-range   (#PCDATA)                                    >