Article Identifier

Unique identifier assigned to an article.


There may be many identifiers for a single article, and each <article-id> holds only one. While such an identifier may be a unique identifier in some system, an article can be identified in many systems. The content for this element may be assigned by a publisher, a jobber, CrossRef, or PubMed Central, for example. Examples of such identifiers include the publisher’s tracking number, a DOI, a PNAS number, etc.

The @pub-id-type attribute may be used to name the type of identifier (such as DOI or SICI), or the organization or system (such as PubMed Central) that defined this identifier. This attribute need only be used if the type is known, for example, to identify DOIs explicitly.

Conversion Note: An archive may attempt to carry all the identifiers associated with an article. For example, during conversion PubMed Central will create <article-id>s for identifiers that come from the publisher as elements or as attributes on the original article.


pub-id-type Type of Publication Identifier
specific-use Specific Use

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-id   (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

<article-meta>, <front-stub>


<journal-id journal-id-type="pmc">BMJ</journal-id>
<journal-id journal-id-type="publisher">BR MED J</journal-id>
<publisher-name>British Medical Journal</publisher-name>
<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital
care for elderly people</article-title>
<aff id="StLukes">...</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">