Container element for information about a single author, editor, or other contributor.


Types of Contributors. The element <contrib> can be used for many roles besides authors, for example, editors, special issue editors, photographers, illustrators, directors, etc. The @contrib-type attribute placed on the <contrib> element, or the <role> element used within the <contrib> element, may be used to describe the contribution.

Best Practice: Use <xref> to point to the institution (<aff>), the corresponding information (<corresp>), or any author footnotes in the author note group.

Anonymous: The name of a contributor that is being withheld or is not known may be recorded using the EMPTY element <anonymous>, which is expected to cause text such an “Anonymous” or “anon.” to be generated for display or print.

Elsevier Conversion Note: For users of the Elsevier Tag Sets, when the ranking or importance of authors has been marked as a note (for example, using <ranking>), the ranking information may be encoded in the <role> element. Thus, the Elsevier-tagged text:


would be converted to:



contrib-type Type of Contribution
corresp Corresponding Author
deceased Deceased
equal-contrib Equal Contribution
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration

Related Elements

Use the <collab> element for contributions by organizations or groups of people. Use the <on-behalf-of> element within the contributor information to indicate that a person has written as a representative of (on behalf of) an organization or group.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  contrib      %contrib-model;                              >

Expanded Content Model

(contrib-id | anonymous | collab | collab-alternatives | name | name-alternatives | string-name | degrees | address | aff | aff-alternatives | author-comment | bio | email | etal | ext-link | fn | on-behalf-of | role | uri | xref | x)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<contrib-group>, <sig-block>

Example 1

<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>
<contrib contrib-type="issue-editor">
<role>Special Issue Editor</role>

Example 2

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">10092260</article-id>
<title-group><article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for elderly
<contrib contrib-type="author"><name><surname>Forster</surname><given-names>Anne</given-names></name>
<role>research physiotherapist</role><xref
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<role>consultant physician</role><xref ref-type="aff">
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<role>senior lecturer</role><xref ref-type="aff"><sup><italic>b</italic></sup></xref>
<author-comment><p>on behalf of the
Day Hospital Group</p></author-comment></contrib></contrib-group>
<aff><sup><italic>a</italic></sup>Department of Health Care for the Elderly, St
Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 0NA, <sup><italic>b</italic></sup>Academic Section
of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 0SF</aff>


Example 3

The name of a contributor given in several script/language combinations:

 <contrib contrib-type="author">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Jpan">
<name name-style="western" xml:lang="en">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Kana">
 <xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2">&ast;&ast;</xref>
 <aff-alternatives id="aff2">
 <aff id="aff-ja">
 <institution xml:lang="ja-Jpan">国立言語学博物館</institution>
 <aff id="aff-en">
 <institution xml:lang="en">National Museum of