Ruby Textual Annotation

This element is one half of a Ruby annotation (<ruby>), and it contains the text that annotates the material in the Ruby Base (<rb>), which may be a small as a single character.


What is Ruby: A Ruby textual annotation is an annotation, typically short, applied to a letter, word, phrase, or name that appears in narrative text. Ruby annotations can indicate, for example, pronunciation advice, notes for translation, semantic annotations, et al. Ruby is used with Japanese, for example, in furigana, which typically uses hiragana annotations on kanji base text. Ruby is also be used in Chinese Pīnyīn (a phonetic system for transcribing the sound of Chinese characters into Latin script) as well as for some Korean names. In display or print, the characters of a Ruby annotation are frequently placed above the characters they modify, in parenthesis after the characters they modify, or to the right of vertically set text.

Structure of NISO JATS Ruby: The <ruby> element is an inline wrapper element that contains some of the document narrative text (inside a Ruby Base <rb> element) and one or more Ruby Textual Annotations (inside an <rt> element) associated with that base text.


content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  rt           (#PCDATA %rt-elements;)*                     >

Expanded Content Model



Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:


Example 1

<p>... 畿内や西日本一帯では<ruby><rb>麦</rb>


Example 2

<p>... あの<ruby><rb>ロンドン警視庁</rb>
<rt xml:lang="en">Scotland Yard</rt></ruby>は霧の中に隠れていた。 
<rt xml:lang="ja">ろんどんけいしちょう</rt>
</ruby>は霧の中に隠れていた。 ...</p>


Example 3

<p>In the midst of the document text, we find:
and yet another example: