PIDs and JATS: How do I tag those crucial but pesky identifiers?
Jeffrey Beck, NCBI/NLM/NIH
Deborah Lapeyre, Mulberry Technologies, Inc.
By a PID (Persistent Identifier or Persistent Unique Identifier) we mean 'a string of letters and numbers used to distinguish
between and locate different objects, people, or concepts'. The idea is that PIDS will be long-lasting references to resources
or objects, mostly digital resources.
Well-known PIDs include DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers), which are used to identify digital objects such journal articles,
books, and datasets and ORCiDs (Open Researcher and Contributor IDentifiers) which identify people such as authors and researchers.
As use case examples, PIDs can be used to find: Who exactly is this author? What else have they written? With which institutions
are they affiliated? Who is providing the funding? Have they collaborated with any of these authors? Can I access the source
data behind this article? PIDs can be used to distinguish between people/institutions/departments with the same name and unite
the records of these same people/institutions/departments when that name changes.
We are not going to talk about the economic or strategic advantages of PIDs or why you should use PIDs in your JATS. We will
try to be agnostic on which PIDs to use and which repositories and PID infrastructures to favor. We will concentrate on how
to record the PIDS you need in your JATS articles.
There are many types of PIDs including:
- document-level PIDs
- object-level PIDs for things inside a work (such as tables, figures)
- external object PIDs
- PIDs which identify people
- Role identifiers to say what participation a person had in a work
- PIDs which identify organizations, institutions, and funders
- PIDS for research projects, subprojects, and tasks or activities
- PIDs for datasets and data collections
- PIDs to be used when citing software
- PIDs for research resources (plasmids, cell lines, organisms, etc)
New PIDs for new situations (or to replace older systems of PIDs) are being devised every day. How do we handle the PIDs we
use now? How do we handle the PIDs we hope to add soon? How do we handle new PIDs that are just coming into being? How can
we all help fulfill the promise of PIDs to connect and link many worlds, building an 'interconnected declarative informational
For the types of PIDs we can both imagine and adequately describe, we will provide specific how-this-could-be-tagged in JATS
examples. Conversely, we will identify what JATS elements/attributes might be used for which specific identifiers. Where there
is more than one valid interpretation, we may discuss alternatives.
Full Paper | Video