Translated Title

Title of a document or document part that has been translated into a language other than that of the original publication. When a document is published simultaneously in more than one language, one language must be chosen for the title and all other document titles become translated titles.


Best Practice: Within the article metadata, a grouping element (<trans-title-group>) has been added to keep related <trans-title>s and <trans-subtitle>s together. Best practice is now to place the language attribute (@xml:lang) on the container element <trans-title-group> rather than on the <trans-title> or the <trans-subtitle> elements. In bibliographic references — which do not allow <trans-title-group> — the @xml:lang attribute should be included on the <trans-title> element (and the translated subtitle subsumed within this title).

In Citations:

Cited Journals: Within a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>), the <trans-title> element contains the title of a cited article, but with the article title given in a different language than used with the <article-title> element. For example, if an article is originally in French, the <article-title> element would contain the French title, and the <trans-title> element might contain, for example, the equivalent English title, both identified with @xml:lang. The journal name or title would be tagged as a <source> and the translated journal title tagged as a <trans-source> element.

Cited Books: Within a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>), translated book titles are tagged with the <trans-source> element.

Cited Subtitles: Within bibliographic references (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), translated subtitles should be tagged as part of the translated title (<trans-title>).

Historical Note: This element (<trans-title>) was significantly remodeled for NLM 3.0. The current NISO JATS values are backwards compatible with NLM 3.0 but not with earlier versions. Specifically, in prior versions, the <trans-title> element was allowed outside the (new) <trans-title-group> container element.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the container element <title-group> in the article metadata:

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  trans-title  (#PCDATA %trans-title-elements;)*            >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <trans-title-group>

Example 1

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<given-names>LM</given-names></string-name> (Departamento
de Servicios de Salud de Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado,
Universidad de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA.
[<trans-title xml:lang="en">Prehospital emergency care
in Mexico City: the opportunities of the healthcare
system</trans-title>]. <source>Salud Publica Mex</source>.
<year iso-8601-date="2005-01">2005</year> <month>Jan-Feb</month>;

Example 2

<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">0002792-200209170-00001</article-id>
<article-title>Quebec's Bill 114</article-title>
<trans-title-group  xml:lang="fr">
<trans-title>La Loi 114 du Qu&eacute;bec</trans-title>
<pub-date pub-type="pub" iso-8601-date="2001-01-02">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 2001, The Canadian Medical
<p>When 51-year-old Claude Dufresne, experiencing his second myocardial
infarction, arrived ...</p>
<trans-abstract xml:lang="fr">
<p>Claude Dufresne, 51 ans, en proie &agrave; son deuxi&egrave;me
infarctus du myocarde, est arriv&eacute; trop tard de six minutes
&agrave; l&apos;urgence du Centre hospitalier du Centre-de-la-Mauricie,
h&ocirc;pital de 142 lits de Shawinigan- Sud. Les portes de
l&apos;urgence &eacute;taient en effet ferm&eacute;es pour la nuit,
parce qu&apos;aucun des 60 m&eacute;decins de famille ou internistes
de l&apos;h&ocirc;pital n&apos;&eacute;tait disponible pour assurer
le service. M. Dufresne est d&eacute;c&eacute;d&eacute; en chemin
vers la salle d&apos;urgence ouverte la plus pr&egrave;s, &agrave;
quelque 30 minutes de l&agrave;.</p>