Underline Start

Milestone indicating the start of underlined text.


The <underline-start> and <underline-end> elements enable creation of underlines in content, most commonly in mathematical content, where a normal <underline> element would break the XML well-formedness rule that no two elements may overlap. The <underline-start> and <underline-end> elements act as milestone tags marking the start and end of overlining that may extend across element boundaries. The underline created using these two elements can have arbitrary start and end points because the start and end elements are paired through the use of the unique identifiers (IDs), not as the start and end of a single element. For example, in the text “ABCD”, if the text “ABC” is the be overlined and the text “CD” is to be underlined, ordinary underlining with <underline> would create invalid tag overlap. The text could be correctly tagged, using the <underline-start> and <underline-end> elements as:

  <overline-start id="ov1"/>AB
  <underline-start id="ul1"/>C
  <overline-end rid="ov1"/>D
  <underline-end rid="ul1"/>

Conversion Note: For users of Elsevier Tag Sets, this pair of elements can be used to translate the similar Elsevier elements, as the intended functionality is the same.


id Identifier
specific-use Specific Use

Related Elements

The <underline> is used for ordinary underlining. For underlines involving problems with element overlap, use the milestone elements <underline-start> and <underline-end>. When a milestone underlining technique is used, the start of the underline will be marked by an <underline-start> element and the end of the underline will be marked by an <underline-end> element.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  underline-start
                        EMPTY                                        >


This is an EMPTY element

This element may be contained in:

<abbrev>, <abbrev-journal-title>, <addr-line>, <aff>, <alt-title>, <anonymous>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <award-id>, <bold>, <chapter-title>, <chem-struct>, <collab>, <comment>, <compound-kwd-part>, <compound-subject-part>, <conf-acronym>, <conf-loc>, <conf-name>, <conf-num>, <conf-sponsor>, <conf-theme>, <copyright-statement>, <corresp>, <date-in-citation>, <def-head>, <degrees>, <disp-formula>, <edition>, <element-citation>, <email>, <etal>, <ext-link>, <fax>, <funding-source>, <funding-statement>, <given-names>, <gov>, <history>, <inline-formula>, <inline-supplementary-material>, <institution>, <issue>, <issue-part>, <issue-sponsor>, <issue-title>, <italic>, <journal-subtitle>, <journal-title>, <kwd>, <label>, <license-p>, <meta-name>, <meta-value>, <mixed-citation>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <on-behalf-of>, <overline>, <p>, <part-title>, <patent>, <phone>, <prefix>, <preformat>, <price>, <product>, <publisher-loc>, <publisher-name>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <role>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <self-uri>, <series>, <series-text>, <series-title>, <sig>, <sig-block>, <source>, <speaker>, <std>, <std-organization>, <strike>, <string-conf>, <string-date>, <string-name>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subject>, <subtitle>, <suffix>, <sup>, <supplement>, <surname>, <target>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <textual-form>, <th>, <title>, <trans-source>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>, <unstructured-kwd-group>, <uri>, <verse-line>, <volume>, <volume-id>, <volume-series>, <x>, <xref>


No sample is available at this time.