Name of Person (Unstructured)

Container element for personal names captured with mixed-content where the order of the name components is not enforced.


This is a very loose element, which may contain text, numbers, special characters, generated text, and any or all of the naming elements, such as <surname>.

Related Essay: For a discussion on the use of <string-name>, see Personal Names in Citations.

Usage: If the name parts are unknown or untagged, put the whole name within the <string-name> element, for example, <string-name>Ice Cube</string-name>. Use of the <string-name> element is more likely to lead to better searching in a repository than merely leaving the person’s name untagged.

Since the <string-name> model permits the tagging of name parts within it, a name like “Prince Charles” could be tagged as a given name “Charles” (<given-names>) and prefix “Prince” (<prefix>), but such tagging is likely to be rare and <string-name>Prince Charles</string-name> is also valid tagging.

Examples of when name parts might be usefully tagged inside <string-name> include:


content-type Type of Content
name-style Name Style
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  string-name  (#PCDATA %string-name-elements;)*            >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | degrees | given-names | prefix | surname | suffix)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<contrib>, <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <name-alternatives>, <person-group>, <principal-award-recipient>, <principal-investigator>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


<ref id="B6">
<article-title>Meta-analysis in clinical trials</article-title>
<source>Controlled Clin Trials</source>
<volume>7</volume>, <year iso-8601-date="1986">1986</year>