Et Al.

Indicator of the presence of unnamed contributors. Typically indicated in print with the text “et al.” or with an ellipsis.


EMPTY: Many tag sets model the <etal> element as EMPTY, that is, the element has no content. Such an empty element is typically used as a placeholder, for example, to generate the text “et al.” via a stylesheet. In this Tag Set, the element is typically used as an empty element, but the Tag Set also accommodates those tag sets that expect content inside <etal>, so the element is modeled with text content instead of as formally EMPTY and may contain text such as “Associates, co-workers, and colleagues”.

In Citations: The latest edition (6th) of the APA Style Guide uses “et al.” in a new way within a long list of authors. When there are more than 8 authors, the citation is expected to display the first 6 authors, then an ellipsis or the words “et al.”, followed by the last author, as shown in the following citation:

Chen P, Halo W, Rife L, Wang XP, Shen D, Chen J, et al., Fong HK (2001) 
A photic visual cycle of rhodopsin regeneration is dependent on Rgr. 
Nat Genet 3:256-260.

This may be tagged in several ways, depending on the publisher’s processing needs


Related Essay: For a discussion on the use of <etal> in the APA 6th Edition style for preserving only 7 authors, see Ordinal Numbers.

Context: In this Tag Set, this element may only be used in bibliographic references (in <element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, and <person-group>).


specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  etal         %etal-model;                                 >

Expanded Content Model



Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <person-group>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B26">
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1994">1994</year>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B26">
<etal>et al.</etal>
<article-title>Measuring outcomes in care of the elderly</article-title>.
<source>J R Coll Phys Lond</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1994">1994</year>;
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">7807432</pub-id>.