Related Object Information

Description of an object (for example, book chapter, figure, table) related to the content but published separately. May include a link to the related object.


For example, the related object might be a related book, a chapter in a book, or a figure or graphic from another published source.

This element represents the link’s reference to its target in three parts:

  1. The source is the largest publishable unit (named in analogy to the <source> element used in citations). In the case of a reference to somewhere in a book, @source-id would represent the book as a whole, perhaps via its ISBN.
  2. The document is the part of the source that is typically delivered when a user follows the link in electronic form. For example, when linking into a book it may be desirable to transfer only the relevant chapter, section, or other unit. That unit would be specified on the @document-id, perhaps via its XML ID.
  3. The object is the location within the document of the precise destination of the link. For example, the object might be a particular list, paragraph, subsection, or other element specified by its XML ID (and a viewing application might scroll to it). In scanned data, the object might be a page specified by number, or an area-to-highlight specified by co-ordinates. In a relational database, the object might be a specific row, selection, or view specified by a query.

Best Practice: For each source, document, and object, an identifier is specified on the corresponding attribute. If the source and document are the same, the @source-id attribute should be empty. If the document and object are the same, the @object-id attribute should be empty. The @document-id attribute should always be specified.

The <related-object> element can also provide a name for the type of each identifier used, for example, ISBN, ISSN, DOI, XMLID, URI, and so on. These go on @source-id-type, @document-id-type, and @object-id-type as appropriate.

Finally, the <related-object> element can provide a name for the type of destination data each identifier actually points to, for example, Book, Part, Chapter, Section, Table, Glossary, Figure, Page, and so on. These go on @source-type, @document-type, and @object-type as appropriate. An application might, as one example, use @object-type values to display links to Figures in a different style than links to Chapters or Tables. When applicable, these types may, but need not, correspond to XML element type names.

Historical Note: This element (<related-object>) was new in version JATS 3.0 of the Tag Set, although some users have added a custom element of the same name to prior versions. The values and/or usage in NISO JATS Version 1.0 may not be backward-compatible with such customizations.


content-type Type of Content
document-id Document Identifier
document-id-type Document Identifier Type
document-type Document Type
ext-link-type Type of External Link
id Identifier
link-type Type of Link (for a Related Object)
object-id Object Identifier
object-id-type Object Identifier Type
object-type Object Type
source-id Source Identifier
source-id-type Source Identifier Type
source-type Source Type
specific-use Specific Use
xlink:actuate Actuating the Link
xlink:href Href (Linking Mechanism)
xlink:role Role of the Link
xlink:show Showing the Link
xlink:title Title of the Link
xlink:type Type of Link
xmlns:xlink XLink Namespace Declaration
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  related-object
                        (#PCDATA %related-object-elements;)*         >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | named-content | styled-content | annotation | article-title | chapter-title | collab | collab-alternatives | comment | conf-date | conf-loc | conf-name | conf-sponsor | date | date-in-citation | day | edition | email | elocation-id | etal | ext-link | fpage | gov | institution | isbn | issn | issn-l | issue | issue-id | issue-part | issue-title | lpage | month | name | name-alternatives | object-id | page-range | part-title | patent | person-group | pub-id | publisher-loc | publisher-name | role | season | series | size | source | std | string-name | supplement | trans-source | trans-title | uri | volume | volume-id | volume-series | year | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<aff>, <alt-title>, <app>, <app-group>, <article-meta>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <bio>, <body>, <bold>, <boxed-text>, <comment>, <def-head>, <disp-quote>, <front-stub>, <glossary>, <italic>, <license-p>, <meta-value>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <notes>, <overline>, <p>, <product>, <ref-list>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <sec>, <strike>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subtitle>, <sup>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <th>, <title>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>


<p>The toll of AIDS in Africa far exceeds its proportion
of the world population. Only 12% of the world's population
inhabit Africa, but the continent has over 60% of the
AIDS-infected population. Mortality statistics are complicated
by the relationship between Tuberculosis and HIV.
<related-object source-id="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/
<person-group person-group-type="editor">
<given-names>Dean T.</given-names></name>
<source>Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa</source>
<publisher-name>The World Bank</publisher-name>
<publisher-loc>Washington, DC</publisher-loc>
<year iso-8601-date="2006">2006</year>
<size units="pages">416</size>