Container element for the parts of a single calendar date.


Usage: A <date> element may contain date components such as <day>, <month>, and <year> (which are typically given numeric values), as well as non-numeric elements such as <season> (which is a text string).

When used within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element names the publication date of the cited source. When used as part of <history>, this element holds one of the publication history dates that may be preserved for an article, such as when it was received or when it was accepted.

Related Essay: For a discussion on the use of <date>, see Dates in Citations.


calendar Calendar
date-type Type of Date
iso-8601-date ISO-8601 Formatted Date
publication-format Format of Publication
specific-use Specific Use

Related Elements

Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element is used to name the date of publication of the cited source. The elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe the date a cited resource was published. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  date         %date-model;                                 >

Expanded Content Model

(((day?, month?) | season)?, year)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <history>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<aff id="StLukes">...</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">
<date date-type="accepted" iso-8601-date="1999-01-29">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 1999, British
Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<copyright-holder>British Medical Journal</copyright-holder>
<p>To examine the effectiveness of
day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly