Article Title

Full title of an article.


Usage: The <article-title> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself and as part of bibliographic reference metadata inside bibliographic citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), where it contains the full title of a cited journal article.

The title is nearly always in the original language of publication, but a publisher or archive might choose to place all article titles in one language, such as English, and use the translated title element to hold the original title (<trans-title>).

Subtitle: In the article metadata, the article subtitle and title are identified with two different elements and tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements. Within a bibliographic reference citation, the subtitle cannot be preserved separately as this Tag Set identifies no cited-subtitle elements.

For references using either the <element-citation> or the <nlm-citation>, which do not permit untagged text, there are two choices:

For references using the <mixed-citation>, there are two choices:

Best Practice in Citations: Although this Tag Set cannot enforce either practice, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle for all cited material is consistently placed within the <article-title> element for journal articles and within the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other documents. When marked as either a <named-content> or left as untagged text, the subtitle is easy to lose to searching. It is also not always easy to identify, particularly with historical or foreign material, which part of a multipart title is the main title and which the subtitle.


id Identifier
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the container element <title-group> in the article metadata:

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %article-title-elements;)*          >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | break)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <title-group>

Example 1

In article metadata:

<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for
elderly people</article-title>
<pub-date pub-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-08-27">

Example 2

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>:
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.

Example 3

In an mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
<source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>