Comment in a Citation

Container element for unstructured text within a bibliographic reference.


Usage: This element is not necessarily a comment in the formal sense of commentary.

In the <mixed-citation> element, text, numbers, and special characters such as punctuation are allowed everywhere, so the element <comment> will rarely be needed. Inside <mixed-citation>, any non-specific text can merely be left as untagged text.

In the <element-citation> element, the element <comment> can be used to contain additional information within a citation that is not appropriate in any of the other specific, named information elements. Typical comments might include:

  <comment>translated from Russian</comment>

Best Practice: In <mixed-citation>s, the <comment> element should be used only to mark substantive text; it should not be used to mark punctuation that occurs between elements. In contrast, in <element-citation>s, the <comment> element can be used to preserve any text, spacing, remarks, or punctuation that will not fit in any of the named reference elements. Frequently, there is material at the end of an element-styled citation that can fit into a <comment>.


content-type Type of Content
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

Display/Formatting Note: <comment> elements should appear inline with other reference elements. This is a very different rendering from that given the similar element <annotation>, which is typically a longer commentary concerning a citation and therefore is rendered as a block element.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  comment      (#PCDATA %comment-elements;)*                >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <nlm-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>


In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="commun">
<comment>115 Park Street, W, [London, GB]</comment>
<source>Letter to: Marquis Townshend</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1864-07-27">1864</year>
<size units="leaves">4 leaves</size>
<comment>Located at: Modern Manuscripts Collection,
History of Medicine Division, National Library of
Medicine, Bethesda, MD; MS F 179</comment>
<annotation><p>Nightingale responds to Townshend&rsquo;s
request on behalf of a Mrs. Montague for funds to
support old nurses</p></annotation>