Name of an institution or organization (for example, university, corporation) with which a contributor is affiliated.


All levels of a multi-tier organization are listed within a single <aff> element; for example, a program, a department, and a university may be part of the same <aff>. Similarly, both a division and a corporation would be inside one <aff>.

Best Practice: In a typical case, the @id attribute of an <aff> element will be pointed to from one or more <contrib> elements, establishing the linkage between them.

Even if the explicitly tagged numbers or symbols for author linkages are preserved in conversion, the ID/IDREF linking mechanism should be maintained or created during conversion.


content-type Type of Content
id Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff          (#PCDATA %aff-elements;)*                    >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | addr-line | country | fax | institution | phone | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | break | bold | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | label | fn | target | xref | sub | sup)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<aff-alternatives>, <article-meta>, <collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <front-stub>, <journal-meta>, <person-group>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<aff>Departamento de Servicios de Salud de
Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad
de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA.
<trans-title xml:lang="en">Prehospital emergency
care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the
healthcare system</trans-title>
<source>Salud Publica Mex</source>
<year iso-8601-date="2005-01">2005</year>

Example 2

In a contributor group in article metadata:

<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="StLukes"/>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>John G.</given-names></name>
<role>consultant physician</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="RoyalInf"/>
<author-comment><p>on behalf of the Day Hospital
<aff id="StLukes">Department of Health Care
for the Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5
<aff id="RoyalInf">Academic Section
of Geriatric Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow
G4 0SF</aff>
<pub-date pub-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">