Affiliation Alternatives

Container element to hold two or more representations of a single affiliation (for example, the name of a university in two or more languages such as both German and English).


Best Practice: When it is present, this container element should take the @id that is used to tie contributors to affiliations rather than putting an @id on the individual affiliations (<aff>s) within the container.

Usage: The <aff-alternatives> element is intended to collect multiple versions of a single affiliation without appearing to multiply the number of affiliations. (Three versions of the name of a university is not the same as three different universities.) Like the similar construction for graphics <alternatives>, it will be up to an application how multiple versions of a single affiliation are to be processed. The @xml:lang attributes can be used to distinguish the different affiliations for separate processing.

The <aff-alternatives> element can be used to record:


id Document Internal Identifier
xml:base Base

Related Elements

Like the very similar element <name-alternatives> which encloses two or more variants of a person’s name, this element encloses two or more variants of an affiliation (<aff>).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff-alternatives
                        %aff-alternatives-model;                     >

Expanded Content Model



<aff> Affiliation, one or more

This element may be contained in:

<article-meta>, <collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <front-stub>, <journal-meta>, <person-group>, <sig-block>


An affiliation name in Japanese and English:

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Jpan">
<name name-style="western" xml:lang="en">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Kana">
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2">&ast;&ast;</xref>
<aff-alternatives id="aff2">
<aff id="aff-ja">
<institution xml:lang="ja-Jpan">国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部</institution>
<aff id="aff-en">
<institution xml:lang="en">Department of Museum Anthropology, 
National Museum of Ethnology</institution>