Name of an institution or organization (for example, university, corporation) with which a contributor is affiliated.


All levels of a multi-tier organization are listed within a single <aff> element; for example, a program, a department, and a university may be part of the same <aff>. Similarly, both a division and a corporation would be inside one <aff>.

Best Practice: In a typical case, the @id attribute of an <aff> element will be pointed to from one or more <contrib> elements, establishing the linkage between them.

Even if the explicitly tagged numbers or symbols for author linkages are preserved in conversion, the ID/IDREF linking mechanism should be maintained or created during conversion.

If an archive wishes to record divisional distinctions made by a publisher, such as an “<institution>” element with “<dept>” and “<office>” sub-elements for the affiliation, the embedded divisions could be converted to this Tag Set using <named-content> elements:

    <institution content-type="edu">
      University of Frostbite Falls
      <named-content content-type="dept">Dept of Campus Security
      <named-content content-type="dept">Dept of Moose and Squirrel
      <named-content content-type="office">Office of the Acting Dean


content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
rid Reference to an Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

Within an affiliation element (<aff>), the name of an institution may just be given as text, or the institution may be tagged explicitly (as an <institution>) and an institutional identifier recorded (<institution-id>). The element <institution-wrap> collects together both the name of the institution and its identifier.

A single institution may have multiple identifiers, either because different assigning agencies have defined an identifier or because the entity belongs to more than one larger organizational unit, for example, a laboratory may be part of multiple institutions.

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff          (#PCDATA %aff-elements;)*                    >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | addr-line | country | fax | institution | institution-wrap | phone | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break | label)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<aff-alternatives>, <article-meta>, <collab>, <contrib>, <contrib-group>, <front-stub>, <journal-meta>, <person-group>, <sig-block>

Example 1

Inside a contributor in the article metadata:

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Melvin P.</given-names></name>
<aff>Departments of Medicine and Pathology, UMDNJ-Robert
Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New
Jersey 08901-0019</aff>
<institution>Departments of Medicine and Pathology,
UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School</institution>
<addr-line>1 Robert Wood Johnson Pl.</addr-line>
<addr-line>New Brunswick, NJ 08901-0019</addr-line>
<phone>(732) 235-7713</phone>
<fax>(732) 235-7951</fax>

Example 2

In a contributor group, following the contributors, in the article metadata:

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<name name-style="western">
<aff>Klinik für Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie,
<institution>Technische Universität München</institution>, 
Munich, Germany (Tel: 49-89-41404517, E-mail:
<ext-link ext-link-type="email" xlink:href="mailto:nuesslin@lrz.tum.de">

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Anne Williams</given-names></name>
<role>research physiotherapist</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="StLukes"/>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="RoyalInf"/>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>John G.</given-names></name>
<role>consultant physician</role>
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="RoyalInf"/>
<p>on behalf of the Day Hospital Group</p>
<aff id="StLukes">Department of Health Care for the
Elderly, St Luke&#x2019;s Hospital, Bradford BD5 0NA</aff>
<aff id="RoyalInf">Academic Section of Geriatric
Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow G4 0SF</aff>

Example 3

Naming the affiliated institution and providing an institution identifier:

<contrib contrib-type="author" rid="aff1">
<given-names>T. D.</given-names></name>
<contrib contrib-type="author" rid="aff1">
<given-names>H. S.</given-names></name>
<aff id="aff1">
<institution-id institution-id-type="Ringgold">1812</institution-id>
<institution content-type="university">Harvard University</institution>
<p>Correspondence to: TD Gaillard <email>tgail@harvard.edu</email></p>

Example 4

In a person group in an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<aff>Departamento de Servicios de Salud de
Emergencia, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad
de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA.
<trans-title xml:lang="en">Prehospital emergency
care in Mexico City: the opportunities of the
healthcare system</trans-title>
<source>Salud Publica Mex</source>
<year iso-8601-date="2005-01">2005</year>

Example 5

An affiliation name in Japanese and English:

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Jpan">
<name name-style="western" xml:lang="en">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Kana">
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2">&ast;&ast;</xref>
<aff-alternatives id="aff2">
<aff id="aff-ja">
<institution xml:lang="ja-Jpan">国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部</institution>
<aff id="aff-en">
<institution xml:lang="en">Department of Museum Anthropology, 
National Museum of Ethnology</institution>