Publication Date

Container element for the parts of a single date associated with an article’s publication (for example, date preprint was released, date article was published in print).


As part of the article metadata, the <pub-date> is allowed to repeat; each repetition can take a different @publication-format attribute to distinguish which form of publication, for example, print publication, electronic publication, etc. and a @date-type attribute to distinguish between preprint, publication, revision received, etc.

While most publication dates will either be a season and a year (for example, Spring 1999) or a year with a possible day and month (for example, January 1, 1999), sometimes the publication date will identify both the season and date. A publication date of “Spring 1999; January 29, 1999” should be tagged:

  <pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub"


calendar Calendar
date-type Type of Date
id Document Internal Identifier
iso-8601-date ISO-8601 Formatted Date
pub-type Type of Publication
publication-format Format of Publication
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  pub-date     %pub-date-model;                             >

Expanded Content Model

(day | era | month | season | year | string-date | x)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<article-meta>, <front-stub>


<article-id pub-id-type="pmid">...</article-id>
<aff id="StLukes">...</aff>
<pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub" 
<date date-type="accepted" iso-8601-date="2001-01-29">
<copyright-statement>Copyright &#x00A9; 1999, British
Medical Journal</copyright-statement>
<copyright-holder>British Medical Journal</copyright-holder>
<p>To examine the effectiveness of day hospital
attendance in prolonging independent living for
elderly people.</p>