Date as a String

Date represented as text.


This element is typically used for dates for which months and years are not given (for example, “In apple blossom time”). While the <string-date> element may also be used for any date that is represented as a sequence of characters (i.e., “January, 2001”, “Fall 2001”, “March 11, 2001”), it is best practice, when possible, to tag the year, month, and/or day as numbers, so “January, 2001” would become:


This Tag Set allows <string-date> both inside <date> and at the same level as <date>. This flexibility enables preservation of nearly any publisher’s structure.


calendar Calendar
content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
iso-8601-date ISO-8601 Formatted Date
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  string-date  (#PCDATA %string-date-elements;)*            >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | day | era | month | season | year)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<date>, <element-citation>, <history>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <pub-date>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

Recording a lifecycle (history) date:

<date date-type="online" specific-use="metadata" 

Example 2

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<ref id="B12">
<label>[12 Lapeyre]</label>
<string-name>Rene Lapeyre du Fontclaire Carnu, IV</string-name>
<article-title>Foraminifera of the Lower Hellstooth</article-title>
<source>Local Paleo</source>
<string-date iso-8601-date="1924">Some time before
<publisher-loc>Rockville, MD</publisher-loc>