Math (MathML Tag Set)

Use documentation for the Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Tag Set (http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML3/ or http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML2/).


<mml:math>: The top-level element for math tagged according to the MathML Tag Set.
MathML 2.0 and MathML 3.0: While MathML 3.0 is the preferred MathML version for new material, NISO JATS recognizes that many users have material in MathML 2.0, and MathML 2.0 will continue to be supported in this version of JATS. There are two distinct JATS DTDS, one for MathML 2.0 and one for MathML 3.0.
Changes to MathML: With one exception, the various elements and attributes of MathML used inside <mml:math> are not documented here, and the reader should refer to online documentation from the W3C and Design Science. The one exception is the <mml:annotation-xml> element. The content model for the <mml:annotation-xml> has been limited to one or more paragraphs: (p+).
MathML Namespacing: The vast majority of users of this Tag Set use the DTDs as their primary (or only) model, so this Tag Set is maintained to ensure that users of DTDs and DTD-based tools will work well. Because DTDs do not “play well” with namespaces, and most DTD-based tools are not namespace aware, the MathML namespace has been hardcoded to the prefix “mml” in the DTDs. This means that the element name, in the DTDs, really is <mml:math>. While this was the usual prefix when this Tag Set was originally established, the more frequently seen prefix is now “m”. Since XSD and RNG use “real” namespaces, this makes no difference to them, as to a namespace-aware processor a namespace prefix is only a placeholder. For DTD users, the element names in the MathML will need to be “mml” (for example, <mml:mfrac>), but tools can be set to provide that prefix and the essence of namespaces is that prefixes do not matter, so no harm is done.
Some current MathML viewers cannot handle MathML elements that are prefixed (using the tag <mml:msub> rather than the tag <msub>) unless the MathML namespace pseudo-attribute has been placed directly on the <mml:math> element (<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">); the presence of the namespace on the top-level element is not good enough. By default in this Tag Set, the namespace has been established as a #FIXED attribute on the <mml:math> element, but processors not using a DTD/schema cannot see defaulted or #FIXED attributes. For such processors, the MathML namespace attribute must be placed directly on all <mml:math> elements in the instance document.
Attributes: The attributes for <mml:math> (with the exception of the namespace pseudo-attribute) are not listed below, because they are not defined by or under the control of JATS.


This element may be contained in:

Example 1

A display formula inside a paragraph:
<p>... As seen in the following summation:
<mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mover accent='true'>

Example 2

Inline formula in an abstract:
<p>This is the third and last part of the volume devoted to solubility data of rare 
earth metal chlorides in water and in ternary and quaternary aqueous systems. 
Compilations of all available experimental data for each rare earth metal chloride 
are introduced with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation 
contains a tabulated collection of all solubility results in water, a scheme of the 
water-rich part of the equilibrium 
<mml:math display="inline" overflow="scroll" 
<mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Ln</mml:mi>
<mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Cl</mml:mi>
<mml:mi mathvariant="normal">H</mml:mi>
<mml:mi mathvariant="normal">O</mml:mi>
</inline-formula> phase diagram, solubility equation(s), a selection of suggested 
solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because 
the ternary and quaternary systems were almost never studied more than once, 
no critical evaluations or systematic comparisons of such data were possible. 
Simple chlorides (no complexes) of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu are treated 
as the input substances. The literature (including a thorough coverage of papers 
in Chinese and Russian) has been covered through the middle of 2008.</p>

Example 3

Inline formula in a note:
<ref id="c46">  
<p>The discretisation consists of 30 elements in the <italic>x</italic>-direction 
and 30 elements in the <italic>y</italic>-direction. This corresponds to 7442 
DOF. The quadratic eigenvalue problems along the <inline-formula>
<mml:math display="inline" overflow="scroll" 
<mml:mi mathvariant="normal">Γ</mml:mi>
</inline-formula> and ... the memory usage of 2.5 GB.</p>