Version 1.0 Change Report

Changes to Content Models

Citation Alternatives

The new element <citation-alternatives> was allowed inside the <ref> element, as an alternative to citations. The new element will contain one or more of the valid citation types for a Tag Set. Since one <ref> may already contain multiple citations, this will allow the publisher to record which are separate citations and which are equivalent alternatives.

Two cases were documented: one for two citations equivalent but in different languages and one where the two citations represent encoding alternatives, one tagged as <element-citation> and one tagged as <mixed-citation> that represent the same citation.

Collaboration Alternatives

A new element <collab-alternatives> was added to NISO JATS to hold multiple versions of a single collaboration, for example, the name of a Laboratory in two languages. This element, which will act for <collab> elements in the same way that <name-alternatives> acts for <name> elements, is allowed everywhere where <collab> is allowed.

Contributor Identifier

A new #PCDATA, optional and repeatable element <contrib-id>, to hold trusted contributor identifiers such as the ORCID. This new element takes the Type of Content, Specific Use, and Contributor Identifier Type attributes, the later to name the authority that constructed the identifier.

This element was also added to all the specifically named roles of people, for example, <principal-award-recipient> and <principal-investigator>.

Cautions: Adding the new <contrib-id> element has the somewhat non-obvious consequence that, since <collab> and <anonymous> are used inside <contrib>, they too can be given <contrib-id> children. There is not a way to enable recording personal identifiers within citations at this time.

Generic Count Element

A generic <count> element was added to the Tag Suite as part of the counting elements within <counts> grouping element, where it joins explicitly named counting elements such as <fig-count> and <word-count>. A typing attribute (@count-type) on the new <count> element will name the objects being counted. This element can be used to count contributors, images, country designations, or anything else not covered by one of the named counting elements.

Although a document creator could choose to use only the new <count> element for all counting, the remaining counting elements will be retained for backwards compatibility.

Edition Element

In previous versions of this Tag Set, the element <edition> has been named “Edition Number” and defined (narrowly) as containing the number of the edition (<edition>3</edition> or <edition>A</edition>). This element was renamed “Edition Statement”. Such an edition statement need not be numeric and may hold the full edition statement, including contain regular or superscripted ordinals. Thus, rather than containing only a number such as “3”, the <edition> element may include statements such as: <edition>Third print edition revised</edition>, <edition>3rd</edition>, <edition>3<sup>rd</sup></edition>, or <edition>3</edition>.

To capture the value of just the edition number, an attribute named Designator of the Edition was added to <edition>, which can hold the numeric (alphabetic, roman, et al.) “number” of the edition (<edition designator="3">Third print edition revised</edition>).

Contributors at the Journal Level

A repeatable <contrib-group> element was added to the model for <journal-meta> to encode the journal editors for a particular publication.

Linking ISSN

A new element (<issn-l> was added to hold a document’s “Linking ISSN” information. (See This new element does not take either a Type of Publication or a Format of Publication attribute, since linking ISSNs are medium-neutral.

Nested Keywords

A new grouping element for nested keywords was created (<nested-kwd>) that can be used to contain taxonomic information, to tie an article to a taxonomy, or to express other hierarchically-related keywords. Ordinary keywords contain single level terms and phrases. The new construct will take a Keyword Authority attribute to name the source (such as a taxonomy) or the authority that created the hierarchical structure. Both simple keywords (<kwd>) and compound or multipart keywords (<compound-kwd>) may be nested.

Nested keywords will join the other keywords as places to record important words and phrases used in the text; broader, narrower, and related terms that could be used to find the text in a search; and semantic information about the text. Such keywords can be used to map a specific article to a taxonomy.

NISO JATS (XHTML-inspired) Tables and OASIS (CALS) Tables

The OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model has always been distributed as part of the DTD Suite, but that relationship is now slightly more formal. The default table model for NISO JATS will remain the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired table model, and all versions of the DTDs will contain this model. In addition, as part of the non-normative documentation, two sets of DTD modules will be provided for the Archiving Tag Set: One version with the XHTML-inspired table model and one version with both the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model and the XHTML-inspired table model. To prevent name clashes, the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model has been namespaced with a hard-coded prefix of “oasis” (e.g., “oasis:table”, “oasis:col”. A new modularization structure makes it possible to switch out the XHTML-inspired model and to remove the namespace prefix from the elements of the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model without changing the OASIS table module.

Only the model for the XHTML-inspired table model will be detailed in the NISO standard and the Tag Set Tag Libraries. A separate Tag Library has been provided for the OASIS Table model (

While enabling the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model without a namespace is, in theory, a non-backward compatible change, it only impacts the OASIS extension, and is in line with what we know of how current JATS users are using the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model.

Standard Model

The model for the element <std> (used inside citations, inside <product>, and as part of the description of related articles and objects) was changed to allow a document creator to capture more of the semantic information concerning a document produced by a standards body such as NISO, ISO, ANSI, IEEE, ASME, etc. The new model is mixed content, with the possibility of the following included elements:

This model allows great flexibility in the granularity of markup. A NISO JATS user organization can choose to tag all information about a standard as text. Alternatively, such an organization can choose to identify, within the text of a standard, any or all of the elements listed above.

Changes to Attributes

ISO 8601:2000(E) Data Format

An @iso-8601-date (with the value set to the ISO 8601:2000(E) extended format YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss or YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ) attribute was added to all of the date elements (including <string-date>, <date>, <pub-date>, <date-in-citation>, and <year>).

This attribute will enable NISO JATS users to add timestamps to the publication dates of articles in both metadata and bibliographic references as well as to record the Gregorian equivalent of non-Gregorian dates. This will be particularly used for news content where publishing embargoes specify a time as well as a date.

Note: This attribute was not added to either <access-date> or <time-stamp>, because these elements are deprecated and should not be used.

Specifying Which Calendar

A textual @calendar attribute was added to all the date elements (including <string-date>, <date>, <pub-date>, <date-in-citation>, and <year>). This attribute can be used to name the type of calendar, such as “Gregorian”, “Japanese”, or “Mayan”.

Note: This attribute was not added to either <access-date> or <time-stamp>, because these elements are deprecated and should not be used.

Long Description Attributes

The <long-desc> element was originally designed to contain a description, but some newer systems expect this element to contain a URI that points to such a description. To make that easier in NISO JATS, the XLink linking attributes were added to <long-desc>. Best practice is to incorporate a textual description, including or ending with an untagged URI, and repeat the URI for linking in the @xlink:href attribute.

Values for @pub-id-type

The value “std-designation” was added to the list of suggested values for Archiving. Similarly, the value “arxiv” representing the “arXiv archive of electronic preprints” was added to the list of suggested values for Archiving.

Pub Type and Date Type (Lifecycle and Format)

The current definition of the Type of Publication attribute is overloaded; it combines the type of format (“print”, “electronic”) with the type of lifecycle event (“preprint”, “publish”, “retract”) to make a single value such as “ppub” for print publication or “ecorrected”.

In this version of this Tag Set, a distinction can be made between the format/type of publication and the type of lifecycle event:

Additionally, the suggested values for the CDATA attribute Type of Date now represent both all the previous date type values (e.g., “accepted”, “received”, “rev-received”, “rev-request”) as well as values extracted from the combinations in the previous pub type attribute (e.g., “pub”, “preprint”, “corrected”, “retracted”), so that all dates (both history dates and publication dates) may take one of a single, consistent set of life-cycle-describing values.

Historical Note: The Type of Publication has been left in place on the <pub-date> element, with its previous set of combined date-type and pub-type values, so that NISO JATS users who prefer not to separate these types of information can continue their current combined practice.

Related Object

The distinction between <related-article> and <related-object> elements seemed artificial to some reviewers and not lending itself to generalization when considering chapters, books or other publication entities. The linking attributes were added to <related-object> to enhance its usability, so that a document creator could use it exclusively and never use <related-article>. To maintain backward-compatibility, both <related-article> and <related-object> elements will remain in the Tag Suite, for document creators who wish to focus on articles.

License Paragraph

Added the Type of Content to <license-p>, to be used to identify CCC statements, Open Source licensing agreements, et al.

Named Content Linking

The attribute @rid was added to the attribute list for the element <named-content>.

XLink Attributes

The XLink linking attributes have not had the implementation uptake that was envisioned when this Tag Set was first designed. Ideally, these attributes could be deleted and replaced with a namespaceless “@href”. However, in the interests of backward compatibility, the XLink namespace and attributes must be retained. All the XLink defaulted values have been turned into #IMPLIED (optional) to reduce the clutter in current documents.

Parameter Entities for Attributes

In previous versions of this Tag Set, some parameter entities for groups of attributes were used to make other parameter entities and occasionally two or more elements shared a parameter entity. In version NISO JATS 1.0, such dependencies have been reduced, and each element has its own parameter entity for its attributes, named with the name of the element and the suffix “-atts” (“collab-atts”, “article-atts”, etc.). The new parameter entities implement the same attribute lists, so no XML document will be made invalid. However, if a Tag Set has been customized, those customizations should be examined in the light of the new parameter entities. Some customizations may need to change to use the new parameter entities, and some implementors may choose to change for the sake of increased compatibility with the base Tag Set and increased flexibility.

The following changes have been made to attribute list parameter entities:

Style for Textual Form Parameter Entity

Textual Form Elements Parameter Entity. Corrected an error that had the parameter entity %textual-form-elements; starting with an element instead of an OR bar, as inline mixes (elements groupings) should be. The parameter entity now begins with an OR bar, and the OR bar has been removed from the model of <textual-form>. Customizations should be updated to match.