Used to mark text that should appear in an italic or slanted font.
Emphasis as a Toggle Switch: The @toggle attribute controls the behavior of this element. When the value of @toggle is set to "no", the emphasized text remains in the requested style, no matter what the surrounding text does. When the value of @toggle is "yes", if the surrounding text is set to the same emphasis style, the text within this element will change to another emphasis style, so that the text will always be typographically distinct from its surroundings.
Using the element <italic> as an example, setting the @toggle attribute to “no” would mean that a material marked as italics will always be italics, even in an italic context. In contrast, if the @toggle attribute was set to “yes” on the <italic> element, if the formatting context imposes italics (whether due to another <italic> element, a stylesheet, some CSS, or other means), then the italics would be turned off within that context, making the emphasized text emphasized by contrast, but not italic. The <italic> element would still produce italics everywhere else.
<!ELEMENT italic (#PCDATA %emphasized-text;)* >
(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*
Any combination of:
<abbrev>, <abbrev-journal-title>, <addr-line>, <aff>, <alt-title>, <anonymous>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <award-id>, <bold>, <chapter-title>, <chem-struct>, <code>, <collab>, <comment>, <compound-kwd-part>, <compound-subject-part>, <conf-acronym>, <conf-loc>, <conf-name>, <conf-num>, <conf-sponsor>, <conf-theme>, <copyright-statement>, <corresp>, <date-in-citation>, <def-head>, <degrees>, <disp-formula>, <edition>, <element-citation>, <email>, <etal>, <ext-link>, <fax>, <fixed-case>, <funding-source>, <funding-statement>, <given-names>, <gov>, <history>, <inline-formula>, <inline-supplementary-material>, <institution>, <issue>, <issue-part>, <issue-sponsor>, <issue-title>, <italic>, <journal-subtitle>, <journal-title>, <kwd>, <label>, <license-p>, <meta-name>, <meta-value>, <mixed-citation>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <on-behalf-of>, <overline>, <p>, <part-title>, <patent>, <phone>, <prefix>, <preformat>, <price>, <product>, <publisher-loc>, <publisher-name>, <rb>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <role>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <self-uri>, <series>, <series-text>, <series-title>, <sig>, <sig-block>, <source>, <speaker>, <std>, <std-organization>, <strike>, <string-conf>, <string-date>, <string-name>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subject>, <subtitle>, <suffix>, <sup>, <supplement>, <surname>, <target>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <textual-form>, <th>, <title>, <trans-source>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>, <unstructured-kwd-group>, <uri>, <verse-line>, <volume>, <volume-id>, <volume-series>, <x>, <xref>
For a foreign phrase:
... <ref id="c35"> <label>35.</label> <note> <p>The geometric optimization and electronic transport properties are all calculated by a developed <italic>ab-initio</italic> software package Atomistix ToolKit, which is based on the spin-polarized density-functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Greens functions. ...</p> </note> </ref> ...
For variable names:
... <table-wrap id="t2" orientation="portrait" position="float"> <label>Table II.</label> <caption> <p>Models to approximate the bound frequencies as waves in X→M (<inline-graphic id="g1" xlink:href="d1"/>: Rotational, <inline-graphic id="g2" xlink:href="d2"/>: Vibrate in <italic>y</italic> direction, <inline-graphic id="g3" xlink:href="d3"/>: Vibrate in <italic>x</italic> direction, <inline-graphic id="g4" xlink:href="d4"/>: Vibrate mainly in <italic>y</italic> direction including a small portion of vibration in <italic>x</italic> direction, <inline-graphic id="g5" xlink:href="d5"/>: Vibrate mainly in <italic>x</italic> direction including a small portion of vibration in <italic>y</italic> direction).</p> </caption> <table border="1">...</table> </table-wrap> ...
<article dtd-version="1.1d1"> <front> <article-meta> ... <permissions> <copyright-statement>Copyright © 2000, The National Academy of Sciences</copyright-statement> <copyright-year>2000</copyright-year> </permissions> <abstract> <p>Current evidence suggests that the length of poly(A) tails of bacterial mRNAs result from a competition between poly(A) polymerase and exoribonucleases that attack the 3′ ends of RNAs. Here, we show that host factor Hfq is also involved in poly(A) tail metabolism. Inactivation of the <italic>hfq</italic> gene reduces the length of poly(A) tails synthesized at the 3′ end of the <italic>rpsO</italic> mRNA by poly(A) polymerase I <italic>in vivo</italic>. <italic>In vitro</italic>, Hfq stimulates synthesis of long tails by poly(A) polymerase I. The strong binding of Hfq to oligoadenylated RNA probably explains why it stimulates elongation of primers that already harbor tails of 20–35 A. Polyadenylation becomes processive in the presence of Hfq. The similar properties of Hfq and the PABPII poly(A) binding protein, which stimulates poly(A) tail elongation in mammals, indicates that similar mechanisms control poly(A) tail synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.</p> </abstract> </article-meta> </front> ... </article>