Format of Publication

Format or medium of the document (for example, “print”). This element is used in several senses:
  • to describe the format/medium for a publication date or other lifecycle date such as an acceptance date or a revision date,
  • to describe the format/medium for an ISSN or ISBN, and
  • to name the format/medium of the document being cited as part of a bibliographic reference.


For use in Dates: In this Tag Set, there are two attributes that can be used to describe history dates and publication dates. The @date-type attribute records the type of event in the lifecycle, such as “accepted”, “published”, or “revised” dates. In addition, the @publication-format attribute records the type of format or media, for example, “print” or “electronic”, to which the event happened.


Best Practice: This attribute should be used when the value is known. Values may include such formats as “print”, “electronic”, “video”, “audio”, “ebook”, “online-only”.

Used on these Elements:

Text, numbers, or special charactersThe cited format, for example, “print”.
Restriction@publication-format is an optional attribute; there is no default.


<element-citation publication-type="book"
publication-format="videocassette" publisher-type="gov">
<source>Making maps in the brain</source>
<publisher-loc>Bethesda (MD)</publisher-loc>