Additional information tied to a particular location in the text. This material is not considered to be part of the body of the text, but is a note used instead of, in addition to, as a source for, or as a commentary on either some body text or on an element in the metadata such as an author.
A footnote <fn> usually contains material that cannot stand alone: material that is related to a word, phrase, or paragraph already in the basic textual material and thus is tied to a particular location in the text. This material is not considered to be part of the body of the text, but is a note instead of, in addition to, as a source for, or as a commentary on either some body text or on an element in the metadata such as an author.
In print, footnotes are traditionally displayed at the bottom of a printed page or in a list at the end of the article (<fn-group>); each footnote reference is marked by a number or symbol, and the text of the footnote is prefixed by the same number or symbol to help the reader associate the text with its reference(s). On screen, footnotes may appear as clickable icons, in a separate pop-up window, in a list with links at the end of an article (<fn-group>), or in a separate footnote area.
Language: To describe a footnote that is not in the same language as the original document (for example, a Latin or Greek footnote for a document in English), use the @xml:lang attribute on the footnote.
Best Practice: When footnotes are grouped at the end of an article, wrap them in a <fn-group> and use an <xref> element in the text, as usual, to tie each footnote in the list to a particular location in the text.
<!ELEMENT fn %fn-model; >
Expanded Content Model
The following, in order:
- <label> Label (of an Equation, Figure, Reference, etc.), zero or one
- <p> Paragraph, one or more
This element may be contained in:
<aff>, <alt-title>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <author-notes>, <bold>, <chem-struct>, <code>, <collab>, <comment>, <compound-kwd-part>, <def-head>, <fixed-case>, <fn-group>, <italic>, <license-p>, <meta-value>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <on-behalf-of>, <overline>, <p>, <product>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <speaker>, <strike>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subtitle>, <sup>, <table-wrap-foot>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <th>, <title>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>, <verse-line>
In the footer of a table:
... <table-wrap id="TN0.170"> <label>Table</label> <caption>...</caption> <table frame="box" rules="all" cellpadding="5"> <tr>...</tr>... <tr>...</tr> </table> <table-wrap-foot> <fn-group> <fn id="TF1-150"><p>Data not available for 1 trial.</p></fn> <fn id="TF1-151"><p>P<0.05 (random effects model).</p></fn> </fn-group> </table-wrap-foot> </table-wrap> ...
In author notes:
... <article-meta>... <contrib-group>...</contrib-group> <aff>...</aff> <author-notes> <fn fn-type="con"><p>Contributors: AF planned and initiated the review, conducted literature searches, ...</p></fn> <fn><p>Correspondence to: Dr Forster <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email></p></fn> <fn><p>Competing interests: None declared.</p></fn> </author-notes> ...</article-meta> ...
In a footnote group:
<article dtd-version="1.1d3"> <front>...</front> <body>...</body> <back>... <ref-list>...</ref-list> <fn-group> <fn> <p>Competing interests: None declared.</p> </fn> </fn-group> </back> </article>
In an article’s title:
... <article-meta> <title-group> <article-title>Adaptins<fn id="FN206"> <p>Online version of this essay contains supplemental tabular material.</p></fn> </article-title> <subtitle>The Final Recount</subtitle> </title-group> <contrib-group> <contrib contrib-type="editor"> <name><surname>Pollard</surname> <given-names>Thomas D.</given-names></name> <author-comment> <p>This essay constitutes the second article in the “Genome Annotation Series” initiated by Thomas D. Pollard, Essay Editor. The first essay, by J.S. Berg, B.C. Powell, and R.E. Cheney, appeared in the April 2001 issue of <italic>Molecular Biology of the Cell</italic> (Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp 780–794).</p> </author-comment> </contrib> ...</contrib-group> ...</article-meta> ...