Date within a Citation

Non-publication date used within a bibliographic reference. Replaces deprecated elements <access-date> and <time-stamp>.


A <date-in-citation> element should not be used to record the publication date (use <pub-date>). This element can be used to record dates such as access dates, copyright dates, patent application dates, or time stamps indicating the exact time the work was published for a continuously or frequently updated source.


calendar Calendar
content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
iso-8601-date ISO-8601 Formatted Date
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Related Elements

Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), the elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe the date a cited resource was published. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  date-in-citation
                        (#PCDATA %date-in-citation-elements;)*       >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | day | era | month | season | year | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | x)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <product>, <related-article>, <related-object>

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):

<element-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="web">
<source>Fact sheet: AIDS information resources</source>
<publisher-loc>Bethesda (MD)</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>National Library of Medicine
<year iso-8601-date="2002-05-02">2003</year>
<date-in-citation content-type="updated"
iso-8601-date="2005-07-14">updated 2005 Jul 14</date-in-citation>
<date-in-citation content-type="access-date"
iso-8601-date="2006-11-15">cited 2006 Nov 15</date-in-citation>
<size units="screens">[about 3 screens]</size>
<comment>Available from:

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):

<mixed-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="web">
<source>Fact sheet: AIDS information resources</source>
[Internet]. <publisher-loc>Bethesda
(MD)</publisher-loc>: <publisher-name>National
Library of Medicine (US)</publisher-name>;
<year iso-8601-date="2003-05-02">2003</year> <month>May</month>
<day>2</day> [updated <date-in-citation content-type="updated"
iso-8601-date="2005-07-14">2005 Jul 14</date-in-citation>;
cited <date-in-citation content-type="access-date"
iso-8601-date="2006-11-15">2006 Nov 15</date-in-citation>].
<size units="screens">[about 3 screens]</size>. Available from: