Used to mark text that should appear in bold face.


Emphasis as a Toggle Switch: The @toggle attribute controls the behavior of this element. When the value of @toggle is set to “no”, the emphasized text remains in the requested style, no matter what the surrounding text does. When the value of @toggle is “yes”, if the surrounding text is set to the same emphasis style, the text within this element will change to another emphasis style, so that the text will always be typographically distinct from its surroundings.
Using the element <italic> as an example, setting the @toggle attribute to “no” would mean that a material marked as italics will always be italics, even in an italic context. In contrast, if the @toggle attribute was set to “yes” on the <italic> element, if the formatting context imposes italics (whether due to another <italic> element, a stylesheet, some CSS, or other means), then the italics would be turned off within that context, making the emphasized text emphasized by contrast, but not italic. The <italic> element would still produce italics everywhere else.


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  bold         (#PCDATA %emphasized-text;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | chem-struct | inline-formula | abbrev | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup)*


This element may be contained in:

Example 1

<contrib contrib-type="author">
<aff id="aff318">
<institution>Department of Molecular and Cellular 
Biology, Harvard University</institution>
<addr-line>Cambridge, Massachusetts</addr-line>
<country>United States of America</country>
<p><bold>Conflicts of interest.</bold> The authors have declared
that no conflicts of interest exist.</p>
<p><bold>Author contributions.</bold> PE, MF, STJ, EMC, DZR,
TS, JSL, and RL conceived and designed the experiments. PE,
MF, DZR, STW, CF, and KH performed the experiments. PE, MF,
STJ, EMC, DZR, and JSL analyzed the data. PE, MF, STJ, EMC, 
DZR, and JSL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. PE, 
MF, STJ, EMC, JSL, and RL wrote the paper.</p>

Example 2

<table frame="box" rules="all" cellpadding="5">
<td>Functional Category</td>
<td>Gene or Operon</td>
<td>&sigma; Factor<sup>a</sup></td>
<td>Activated by<sup>b</sup></td>
<td>Repressed by</td>