Type of Publication Identifier

Type of publication identifier, such as a DOI or a publisher’s identifier.


Context: The @pub-id-type attribute can be used in several contexts:
  • inside a bibliographic citation element such as <mixed-citation> or <element-citation> (for example, on the <pub-id> element, which identifies a publication cited in a bibliographic reference list);
  • on an object identifier element (<object-id>);
  • on a related article or other related object (for example, on the element <related-object>); and
  • on an issue or volume identifier (for example, on the <issue-id> element, which identifies an issue).


Type of Identifier Best Practice: Best Practice is to reserve the @pub-id-type value for the specific type of the external identifier (such as a DOI or PMID) or for a generic type of identifier (such as a publisher’s identifier, an aggregator’s or archive’s identifier, the identifier assigned by an indexing or hosting service, or similar).
Authority Identifier Best Practice: The attribute @assigning-authority should name the organization or system that assigned the identifier or administers the identifier (such as Crossref, OCLC, GenBank, Figshare).
Case in Attribute Values: Upper/lower/mixed case in attribute values for organizations and identifier types is likely to be variable and thus unreliable for search/discovery. If possible, JATS recommends a case-insensitive search for such values. For example, if an identifier type is a DOI, many publishers use “doi” to keep all attribute values lower case, while others use “DOI” because that is the native language acronym. Adding to this variability are identifiers that change over time. Expect to find the organization Crossref in values as “Crossref” (the currently preferred organization name), “CrossRef” (the previously preferred organization name), or “crossref” (for publishers who prefer all lower case for attributes).
Historical Note: Until JATS version 1.2d2 (2018), the @pub-id-type’s value conflated two meanings: the attribute could hold the type of identifier (such as a DOI or ISBN), or it could hold the name of the organization or system that defined or registered the identifier (such as Crossref). There was no way to state both that the identifier content of the element was a DOI and that the server was Figshare or Crossref. Although all the previous @pub-id-type values will continue to be accepted, for Best Practice, the @assigning-authority should name an organization and the @pub-id-type attribute should describe the identifier type.

Used on these Elements:

accessionGeneric identifier type for a unique identifier given to an item in a data repository. For example, a DNA or protein sequence record for tracking the sequence record and the associated sequence over time.
archiveGeneric identifier type for an identifier assigned by an archive or other repository (generally used with elements <object-id>, <issue-id>, and <volume-id>).
arkArchival Resource Key — a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) containing the word “ark” that is a multi-purpose identifier for information objects of any type.
art-access-idIdentifier type for a generic article accession identifier used for interchange and retrieval between archives.
arxivarXiv (archive of electronic preprints) identifier.
codenObsolete PDB/CCDC identifier (may be present on older articles).
doajIdentifier of the Directory of Open Access Journals.
doiDigital Object Identifier.
handleHandle identifier, part of the Handle System for assigning, managing, and resolving persistent identifiers for digital objects and other resources on the Internet.
indexGeneric identifier type for an identifier assigned by an abstracting or indexing service (generally used with elements <object-id>, <issue-id>, and <volume-id>).
isbnInternational Standard Book Number.
manuscriptGeneric identifier type for an identifier assigned to a manuscript.
medlineNLM Medline identifier.
mrMathematical Reviews (MR) identifier
otherNone of the named identifiers in this list.
piiThe original “Publisher Item Identifier” (PII) was a system to provide unique and concise identification for individual published documents with a highly specified string. The PII specification is no longer in common use (2010).
pmcidPubMed Central identifier.
pmidPubMed Identifier (PubMed ID). See
publisher-idGeneric identifier type for a publisher’s identifier, such as an “article-id”, “artnum”, “identifier”, “article-number”, “pub-id”, etc.
siciSerial Item and Contribution Identifier (An ANSI/NISO Z39.56 code to uniquely identify volumes, articles, or other parts of a periodical. A journal article may have more than one SICI, for example, one for a print version and another for an electronic version.)
std-designationThe official number of a standard, from a standards body such as ISO, NISO, IEEE, ASME, etc., for example, “Z39.96-2019”.
zblZentralblatt MATH (zbMATH) identifier.
Restriction@pub-id-type is an optional attribute; there is no default.

Example 1

Inside a citation for a print journal article, to name the identifier as a DOI:
<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<pub-id pub-id-type="doi">10.1542/peds.2004-1441</pub-id>


Example 2

Cite a specific print version of an issue:
<mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<string-name><surname>Ganster</surname>, <given-names>D. C.</given-names></string-name>, 
<string-name><surname>Schubroeck</surname>, <given-names>J.</given-names></string-name>, 
<string-name><surname>Sime</surname>, <given-names>W. E.</given-names></string-name>, 
&amp; <string-name><surname>Mayes</surname>, <given-names>B. T.</given-names></string-name>. 
<article-title>The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed 
adults</article-title> [Monograph]. <source>Journal of Applied Psychology</source>, 
<year iso-8601-date="1991">1991</year>; <volume>76</volume>(<issue>1</issue>):
<fpage>143</fpage>-<lpage>168</lpage>. <issue-id assigning-authority="nlm" 
pub-id-type="call-number">W1 IN249</issue-id>.</mixed-citation>