Affiliation Alternatives

Container element to hold two or more representations of a single affiliation (for example, the name of a university in two or more languages such as both German and English).


Best Practice: When it is present, this container element should take the @id that is used to tie contributors to affiliations rather than putting an @id on the individual affiliations (<aff>s) within the container.
Usage: The <aff-alternatives> element is intended to collect multiple versions of a single affiliation without appearing to multiply the number of affiliations. (Three versions of the name of a university is not the same as three different universities.) Like the similar construction for graphics <alternatives>, it will be up to an application how multiple versions of a single affiliation are to be processed. The @xml:lang attributes can be used to distinguish the different affiliations for separate processing.
The <aff-alternatives> element can be used to record:
  • The name of an affiliation in multiple language/script combinations (For example, a university name in Japanese [xml:lang="ja-Jpan" for Han + Hiragana + Katakana], the same university name written in Kanji [xml:lang="ja-Hani"], and written again in Latin alphabet);
  • An alternate affiliation for sorting or searching, for example, a name in French with accented letters (such as an “é”) and a plain-letter lower-ASCII version of the same name with “é” replaced by “e” for sorting. The @specific-use attribute can be used to indicate that the ASCII version is only for “sort”, not for display.); or
  • An alternate name indexing. For example, an XML database may need to record all the name variants found for an institution from “UCLA” to “University of California Los Angeles”, with the @specific-use attribute used to mark distinctions such as “primary” and “index”.

Related Elements

Like the very similar element <name-alternatives> which encloses two or more variants of a person’s name, this element encloses two or more variants of an affiliation (<aff>).


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  aff-alternatives
                        %aff-alternatives-model;                     >

Expanded Content Model



<aff> Affiliation, one or more

This element may be contained in:


An affiliation name in Japanese and English:
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Jpan">
<name name-style="western" xml:lang="en">
<name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Kana">
<xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff2">&ast;&ast;</xref>
<aff-alternatives id="aff2">
<institution xml:lang="ja-Jpan">国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部</institution>
<institution xml:lang="en">Department of Museum Anthropology, 
National Museum of Ethnology</institution>