Representation, usually numerical, of a calendar year.


Calendar: The @calendar attribute can be used to indicate the calendar (e.g., Gregorian, Thai Buddha, or Japanese) of the given year.
Usage: In addition to being used for the year of publication, the <year> is also used to record “historical” events in the publishing cycle, for example, the year the document was accepted or last updated.
The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself, and as part of the description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>).
Best Practice: When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “2015”.
Related Essay: For a discussion on the use of <year>, see Dates in Citations.

Related Elements

Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element is used to name the date of publication. The elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe the date a cited resource was published. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  year         (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

Example 1

In article metadata, as part of a lifecycle (history) date:
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<collab collab-type="committee">Technical Committee ISO/TC 108, 
Subcommittee SC 2</collab>
<fpage seq="1">1</fpage>
<date date-type="approved" iso-8601-date="2012-06-01">

Example 2

In article metadata, in both history and publication dates:
<article dtd-version="1.1">
<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for
elderly people</article-title>
<pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">

Example 3

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):
<ref id="B8">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care services
for the chronically ill: a randomized experiment</article-title>
<source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>

Example 4

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):
<ref id="B8">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care services
for the chronically ill: a randomized experiment</article-title>.
<source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>;
<volume>18</volume>: <fpage>567</fpage>&ndash;<lpage>584</lpage>.
<pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>.

Example 5

Date showing a Japanese year:
<date date-type="received" calendar="Japanese"