Textual unit or block; a textual paragraph.


This element does not have to be a well-formed paragraph as defined in high school English class, i.e., “a block of text representing a single idea, typographically differentiated from its neighbors”. Rather, the element <p> is a block (as opposed to inline) structural unit which may be only a few words in length.


content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  p            (#PCDATA %p-elements;)*                      >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | address | array | boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | code | fig | fig-group | graphic | media | preformat | supplementary-material | table-wrap | table-wrap-group | disp-formula | disp-formula-group | citation-alternatives | element-citation | mixed-citation | nlm-citation | award-id | funding-source | open-access | def-list | list | ack | disp-quote | speech | statement | verse-group)*


Any combination of:

This element may be contained in:

<abstract>, <ack>, <annotation>, <app>, <app-group>, <author-comment>, <author-notes>, <bio>, <body>, <boxed-text>, <caption>, <def>, <disp-quote>, <fig>, <fn>, <glossary>, <list-item>, <note>, <notes>, <open-access>, <ref-list>, <sec>, <speech>, <statement>, <supplementary-material>, <table-wrap-foot>, <td>, <th>, <trans-abstract>

Example 1

Typical paragraphs inside sections:

<article dtd-version="1.1d1">
<sec sec-type="intro">
<p>Geriatric day hospitals developed rapidly in the United Kingdom in the 1960s
as an important component of care provision. The model has since been widely
applied in several Western countries. Day hospitals provide multidisciplinary
assessment and rehabilitation in an outpatient setting and have a pivotal
position between hospital and home based services. ...</p>
<sec sec-type="methods">
<p>The primary question addressed was ...</p>
<title>Inclusion criteria</title>
<p>We set out to identify all ...</p>
<title>Search strategy</title>
<p>We searched for ...</p>

Example 2

Paragraphs may precede sections within the body of an article:

<p content-type="disclaimer"><italic>The information
and/or opinions expressed in this Guest Editorial are
those of the author(s). They are neither endorsed nor
disputed by <roman>Prescribing Physician</roman> or
the Pharma-Physician Coalition.  Questions about or
comments on this editorial&rsquo;s content should be
directed to the corresponding author.</italic></p>

Example 3

The @content-type attribute may identify semantics or the role of the paragraph:

<p content-type="lead-paragraph">In the field of 
<named-content content-type="sem:AIPTh1.2" rid="kwd1.10">complex 
systems</named-content> study, new measurement and computational 
resources have lead to increased interest ...</p>