Summarized description of the content of a document or document component.
Many book publishers now request an abstract for a book and one for each book part as part of the online sales or RSS feed advertising for the book. Many book abstracts still resemble journal article abstracts, one or two paragraphs containing a very short summary of the major findings or conclusions of the book or book part. Some book abstracts are “long” or “summary” abstracts in which each book part is summarized in a separate section in the abstract, with the sections given the same title as the book part being summarized. Such abstracts may be extensive, incorporating figures and tables. The model for the element <abstract> has been made flexible enough to allow for either abstract style.
A single book or book part may take many abstracts, each aimed at a different use, such as display at the beginning of the chapter, ePub promotional abstract, RSS/Atom feed, book jacket blurb, pronouncing abstract, or small book or book part summary for the web splash page or the web Table of Contents. Two attributes may be used to describe the type or usage for a particular abstract:
- The @specific-use attribute may be used to identify a processing purpose, such as RSS feed or pronunciation.
- The optional @abstract-type attribute may be used to identify special types of abstracts, for example, graphical abstracts, stereochemical abstracts, ASCII abstracts for sending to small devices, and Table-of-Contents abstracts that are so short they are inserted as annotations into a Table of Contents. See the attribute page for @abstract-type for a list of suggested types.
Locations of Abstracts
Abstracts inside the element <book-meta> or <book-part-meta> pertain to the entire document or the entire book part. Some block-level elements, such as figures, tables, and sidebars (<boxed-text>) may also include the <abstract> element. Any abstract inside a smaller component refers only to that component, not to the entire document.
For accessibility purposes, it is useful to provide a very short synopsis abstract (much like a Table of Contents blurb or a dek in some journals) whose purpose is to tell a non-sighted reader what the document is about. This abstract can be given the @abstract-type such as “meta-description”, “description”, or “dc:description” to indicate that, when making web pages from this XML, the abstract should be used to create the XHTML metadata description.
The <abstract> element should not be used to take the place of the regular accessibility elements <alt-text> or <long-desc>, which are, respectively, shorter and longer descriptions of a component of a document, such as a table or figure.
Models and Context
May be contained in
The following, in order:
- <object-id> Object Identifier, zero or more
- The following, in order:
- <sec-meta> Section Metadata, zero or one
- <label> Label (of an Equation, Figure, Reference, etc.), zero or one
- <title> Title, zero or one
- <subtitle> Document Subtitle, zero or more
- <alt-title> Alternate Title, zero or more
- Any combination of:
- <address> Address/Contact Information
- <alternatives> Alternatives For Processing
- <answer> Answer to a Question
- <answer-set> Answer Set
- <array> Array (Simple Tabulation)
- <boxed-text> Boxed Text
- <chem-struct-wrap> Chemical Structure Wrapper
- <code> Code
- <explanation> Explanation
- <fig> Figure
- <fig-group> Figure Group
- <graphic> Graphic
- <media> Media Object
- <name-address-wrap> Name/Address Block Wrapper
- <preformat> Preformatted Text
- <question> Question
- <question-wrap> Question Wrapper
- <question-wrap-group> Question Wrapper Group
- <supplementary-material> Supplementary Material
- <table-wrap> Table Wrapper
- <table-wrap-group> Table Wrapper Group
- <disp-formula> Formula, Display
- <disp-formula-group> Formula, Display Group
- Math Elements
- <p> Paragraph
- <related-article> Related Article Information
- <related-object> Related Object Information
- <ack> Acknowledgments
- <disp-quote> Quote, Displayed
- <speech> Speech
- <statement> Statement, Formal
- <verse-group> Verse Form for Poetry
- <x> X - Generated Text and Punctuation
- <sec> Section, zero or more
- Any combination of:
<!ELEMENT abstract %abstract-model; >
Expanded Content Model
((object-id)*, (sec-meta?, label?, title?, subtitle*, alt-title*, (address | alternatives | answer | answer-set | array | boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | code | explanation | fig | fig-group | graphic | media | name-address-wrap | preformat | question | question-wrap | question-wrap-group | supplementary-material | table-wrap | table-wrap-group | disp-formula | disp-formula-group | def-list | list | tex-math | mml:math | p | related-article | related-object | ack | disp-quote | speech | statement | verse-group | x)*, (sec)*, (notes | fn-group | glossary | ref-list | sig-block)*))
Single paragraph abstract
... <book-part-meta> <title-group> <label>1</label> <title>GenBank: The Nucleotide Sequence Database</title> </title-group> <contrib-group>...</contrib-group> <pub-history>...</pub-history> <abstract> <title>Summary</title> <p>The GenBank sequence database is an annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. This database is produced at National Center for Biotechnology Information (<xref ref-type="kwd" rid="bid.1353">NCBI</xref>) as part of an international collaboration with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Data Library from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). GenBank and its collaborators receive sequences produced in laboratories throughout the world from more than 100,000 distinct organisms. GenBank continues to grow at an exponential rate, doubling every 10 months. Release 134, produced in February 2003, contained over 29.3 billion nucleotide bases in more than 23.0 million sequences. GenBank is built by direct submissions from individual laboratories, as well as from bulk submissions from large-scale sequencing centers.</p> <p>Direct submissions are made to ...</p> </abstract> </book-part-meta> ...
With interior sections
... <book-meta> ... <abstract> <sec> <title>Objective</title> <p>To examine the effectiveness of day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly people.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Design</title> <p>Systematic review of 12 controlled clinical trials (available by January 1997) comparing day hospital care with comprehensive care (five trials), domiciliary care (four trials), or no comprehensive care (three trials).</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Subjects</title> <p>2867 elderly people.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Main outcome measures</title> <p>Death, institutionalisation, disability, global “poor outcome,” and use of resources.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Results</title> <p>Overall, there was no significant difference between day hospitals and alternative services for death, disability, or use of resources. However, ...</p> </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions</title> <p>Day hospital care seems to be an effective service for elderly people ...</p> <p><boxed-text position="float"> <sec> <title>Key messages</title> <p>...</p> </sec> </boxed-text></p> </sec> </abstract> </book-meta> ...
@abstract-type differentiates multiple abstracts
... <book-part-meta> ... <abstract> <p>This is the third and last part of the volume devoted to solubility data of rare earth metal chlorides in water and in ternary and quaternary aqueous systems. Compilations of all available experimental data for each rare earth metal chloride are introduced with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a tabulated collection of all solubility results in water, a scheme of the water-rich part of the equilibrium ... Because the ternary and quaternary systems were almost never studied more than once, no critical evaluations or systematic comparisons of such data were possible. Simple chlorides (no complexes) of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu are treated as the input substances. The literature (including a thorough coverage of papers in Chinese and Russian) has been covered through the middle of 2008.</p> </abstract> <abstract abstract-type="short"> <p>The is the third and last part of the volume devoted to solubility data of rare earth metal chlorides in water and in ternary and quaternary aqueous systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal chloride with a corresponding critical evaluation. This part covers chlorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, with coverage of the literature through the middle of 2008.</p> </abstract> </book-part-meta> ...