Article Title

Full title of an article.


Usage: The <article-title> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself and as part of bibliographic reference metadata inside bibliographic citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), where it contains the full title of a cited journal article.
The title is nearly always in the original language of publication, but a publisher or archive might choose to place all article titles in one language, such as English, and use the translated title element to hold the original title (<trans-title>).
Subtitle: In the article metadata (<article-meta>), the article subtitle and title are identified with two different elements and tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements. Within a bibliographic reference citation, the subtitle cannot be preserved separately as this Tag Set identifies no cited-subtitle elements.
For references using either the <element-citation> or the <nlm-citation>, which do not permit untagged text, there are two choices:
For references using the <mixed-citation>, there are two choices:
  • The subtitle may be included with the title in the <article-title> element (or the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other titles), or
  • The subtitle may be left as untagged characters within the text of the reference.
Best Practice in Citations: Although this Tag Set cannot enforce either practice, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle for all cited material is consistently placed within the <article-title> element for journal articles and within the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other documents. When marked as either a <named-content> or left as untagged text, the subtitle is easy to lose to searching. It is also not always easy to identify, particularly with historical or foreign material, which part of a multipart title is the main title and which the subtitle.

Related Elements

There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the container element <title-group> in the article metadata (<article-meta>):
  • The <article-title> is the full title of the article in the original language of the document.
  • The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title.
  • The <alt-title> is another version of an article title, usually created so that the title can be processed in a special way, for example, a short version of the title for use in a Table of Contents, an ASCII title, or a version of the title to be used in the right-running-head.
  • The <trans-title-group> is also a container element, inside the <title-group>, that holds together a translated title (<trans-title>) and its translated subtitle (<trans-subtitle>). The translated title is a version of the title translated into a language other than the original language of publication, and the matching subtitle is a version of the subtitle translated into a language other than the original language.


id Document Internal Identifier
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %article-title-elements;)*          >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | break)*


This element may be contained in:

Example 1

In article metadata:
<article dtd-version="1.1d2">
<article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
<article-title>Systematic review of day hospital care for
elderly people</article-title>
<pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-08-27">

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):
<ref id="c25">
<mixed-citation publication-type="report" publisher-type="government">
<collab>Federal Highway Administration</collab> (FHWA). 
(<year iso-8601-date="1992">1992</year>). &#x201C;<article-title>Evaluating 
scour at bridges</article-title>.&#x201D;  <source><italic>Hydr. Engrg. Circular 
No. 18</italic></source>: <gov><italic>FHWA-IP-90-017</italic></gov>, 
<institution>Office of Engineering, Bridge Div.</institution>, Washington, 
D.C. </mixed-citation> 


Example 3

The same bibliographic reference shown in element-style (punctuation and spacing removed) and in mixed-style (punctuation and spacing preserved):
<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
<source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>
<ref id="B8"><label>8</label>
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>:
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.