Section-like container element for one or more notes that are not part of the narrative flow (for example, note added in proof, dedication).


Such notes are typically material outside the regular technical content of the document, extra material added by a contributor or by the publisher during or after the regular text has been processed, a note by the editor, or a note added after print publication.
There is no predefined list of types for the @notes-type attribute, but values publishers have used include “added-in-proof”, “dedication”, “conflict-of-interest”, “death-notice”, “editor-note”, “added-post-print”, “added-post-electronic-publication”, and “translator-note”.
A typical end-of-document note is a “Note in Proof”. A Note in Proof contains late-breaking news items or other material produced while the document was being typeset or was otherwise in production, that therefore happened too late to be included in the text of the work. This is typically NOT peer-reviewed content, and citations to other material within such content are usually integrated into the text or put inside the last paragraph, not listed separately in a bibliographic reference list <ref-list>.
The possibility of prepublication online as well as slightly differing content in the online versus print version of the same work has led to an increase in notes that are “only for the print” or “only for web” versions. The @specific-use attribute may be used to mark a note as belonging to only a specific format, such as “print-only”.

Related Elements

Not to be confused with the general notes and footnotes that can appear at the bottom of a table (<table-wrap>) and that should be tagged as ordinary paragraphs and footnotes inside a <table-wrap-foot> container element.


id Document Internal Identifier
notes-type Type of Notes
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  notes        %notes-model;                                >

Expanded Content Model

(sec-meta?, label?, title?, (address | alternatives | array | boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | code | fig | fig-group | graphic | media | preformat | supplementary-material | table-wrap | table-wrap-group | disp-formula | disp-formula-group | def-list | list | tex-math | mml:math | p | related-article | related-object | disp-quote | speech | statement | verse-group)*, (sec)*, (fn-group | glossary | ref-list)*)


This element may be contained in:

Example 1

<article dtd-version="1.1d2">
<title>Note Added in Proof</title>
<p>Similar sequence information has been obtained in another study (S. Mishiro,
personal communication) and has been deposited under GenBank accession numbers
&#x2013;. For the purposes of HBV nomenclature, we have proposed that the
chimpanzee HBV be abbreviated as ChHBV.</p>

Example 2

<notes notes-type="disclaimer">
<p><italic>The information and/or opinions expressed in this 
Guest Editorial are those of the author(s). They are neither 
endorsed nor disputed by <roman>Prescribing Physician</roman> 
or the Pharma-Physician Coalition. Questions about or comments 
on this editorial&rsquo;s content should be directed to the 
corresponding author.</italic></p>

Example 3

<notes notes-type="dedication">
<p>We dedicate this paper to our professor, Dr. Robert 
Jemmings, whose critique of the underlying study identified 
potential bias in the analysis and strengthened our 

Example 4

Editor’s notes:
<notes notes-type="editor-note">
<p><sc>EDITOR&rsquo;S NOTE:</sc>  The study examined in 
this article was neither blinded nor placebo-controlled.  
More recent studies suggest that traditional medications 
when compared with placebos do decrease symptoms of this 
condition. Further research is needed to ascertain the 
efficacy of such medications; until research is conducted, 
traditional medications may be an effectual treatment.</p>

Example 5

Post publication information:
<notes notes-type="after-epub">
<p>After publication, the authors discovered an error in 
the text concerning the administration of the medication 
levothyroxine.  The text reads:  &ldquo;Individuals 
prescribed the thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, should 
eat within thirty minutes of taking the medication.&rdquo;  
The text should read: &ldquo;Individuals prescribed the 
thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, should <italic>not</italic> 
eat within thirty minutes of taking the medication.&rdquo;</p>