Series information about a journal or book in a bibliographic reference or product.


The word “series” is used in this Tag Set with two very different meanings. The element <series> is used for only one of those meanings, and the two elements <series-text> and <series-title> are used only for the other.
  • <series> is used in elements that include citation information (<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <product>) to identify publications that are part of a published series. For example, a publisher may issue a “Nursing References Series” that includes a book on the history of nursing, one on current nursing practices, one on nursing education, and another containing nurses’ professional experiences. The <series> element is used to capture that “Nursing Reference Series” information.
  • <series-text> and <series-title> are used to identify a collection of articles within an issue or a collection of similar articles across multiple issues. For example, a single issue of a journal may contain numerous colloquium papers that can be identified as part of a series by including <series-title>Colloquium</series-title> in each article’s metadata. An example of a series that spans issues is the “Inaugural Article” series in PNAS. These articles from newly-elected members of the National Academy of Sciences are all part of the same series, but appear in different issues of the journal.

Related Elements

Within the article metadata, the <series-title> element names a collection of articles within an issue or a collection of similar articles across multiple issues, while the <series-text> element provides textual description (if any) of the series. The similarly named but unrelated element <series> is a container element to hold any series data mentioned in a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>).


content-type Type of Content
id Document Internal Identifier
specific-use Specific Use
xml:base Base
xml:lang Language

Content Model

<!ELEMENT  series       (#PCDATA %series-elements;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | ruby | sub | sup | named-content | styled-content)*


This element may be contained in:

Example 1

In an element-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing removed):
<element-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print">
<person-group person-group-type="compiler">
<source>A bibliography of recent works on
home health care</source>
<publisher-loc>Lewiston (NY)</publisher-loc>
<publisher-name>Edwin Mellen Press</publisher-name>
<date-in-citation content-type="copyright-year"
<size units="pages">184 p</size>
<series>Studies in health and human services; vol.

Example 2

In a mixed-style bibliographic citation (punctuation and spacing preserved):
<mixed-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print">
<given-names>M</given-names></string-name>, compilers.
<source>A bibliography of recent works on home
health care</source>. <publisher-loc>Lewiston
(NY)</publisher-loc>: <publisher-name>Edwin
Mellen Press</publisher-name>;
&copy;<date-in-citation content-type="copyright-year"
<size units="pages">184 p</size>. (<series>Studies
in health and human services; vol. 37</series>).