Academic titles or professional certifications displayed following a personal name (for example, “MD”, “PhD”).


This element is used inside container elements about the person, such as the <contrib> element or the <speaker>. This element relates only to people, and typically follows the name of a person.
As part of information about a contributor, the <suffix> element should be used for parts of people’s names (for example, “Jr.”), not for degrees. The academic degrees are part of the information that is known about a contributor, not part of the name of the contributor, and should take the <degrees> element. Degree and certification information may be placed directly following the person’s name within the contributor information:
<contrib contrib-type="..." corresp="yes">
Best Practice In Citations: When a bibliographic citation includes information about the degrees held by a cited author, those degrees should typically be treated as text and not tagged.

Related Elements

This element is not related to the similarly named MathML <degree> element, which is a mathematical term for angles and relationships and does not relate to people or education.


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  degrees      (#PCDATA %degrees-elements;)*                >

Expanded Content Model



Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more

This element may be contained in:


<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>Michael Q.</given-names></name>
<aff id="UWW">
<institution>Department of Pathobiology
University of WallieWash</institution>
<addr-line>Oberlin, Washington 96204</addr-line>
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<given-names>James C.</given-names></name>
<degrees>Ph D</degrees>
<aff id="affKalakukko">Kalakukko Corporation</aff>
<institution>Kalakukko Corporation</institution>
<addr-line>17 West Jefferson St.</addr-line>
<addr-line>Suite 207</addr-line>
<addr-line>New South Finland, MD 20856.</addr-line>
<phone>(301) 754-5766</phone>
<fax>(301) 754-5765</fax>