Structure of the Tag Library

This “Tag Library” is provided as a service to users of ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2021, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite; the Tag Library is not part of ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2021. It contains non-normative information that is intended to be helpful to users of ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2021.
The Tag Library is organized into a number of chapters, each divided into sections (which may also be divided into further sections). Navigation around the Tag Library is through the Navigation Panel (Navbar) and through numerous direct links between related components.
The table below outlines the structure and chapters (with their subsections) of this document:
Getting Started
Basic information for first time users and reference for experienced users, this chapter describes the Tag Library document, how to navigate around the web pages of the complex document, and introductory material for the Publishing Tag Set. Also includes the Hierarchy Diagrams, which are useful as introductions as well as reference.
How to move around the Tag Library pages, using the Navigation Bar (Navbar), Navbar collapse and expand arrows, page collapse/expand diamonds, and the search facility. (See Navigation.)
Structure of Tag Library
Describes the sections of the Tag Library and what can be found in each.
Introduction to Publishing Tag Set
This section provides basic information about the JATS Journal Publishing Tag Set. What is the scope of Publishing? What was it designed to do? How is the top-level <article> element structured? (See Introduction to Publishing Tag Set.)
Root Element
Names the <article> element as the root of this XML schema (DTD, XSD, and RNG). (See Root Element.)
Selecting a Model & Schema
Describes the different JATS schemas and how to choose the right one for your implementation. (See Selecting a Model & Schema.)
Hierarchy Diagrams
Tree-like graphical representations of the content of many elements. This can be a fast, visual way to determine the structure of an article or of any complex element within an article. (See Hierarchy Diagrams.)
Descriptions of the elements used in the Journal Publishing Tag Set. The elements are listed in order by tag name. (For information on how each Element page is organized, see Introduction to Elements.)
Descriptions of the attributes in the Journal Publishing Tag Set. Attributes are listed in order by the name used in tagging documents and in the schemas. (For information on how each Attribute page is organized, see Introduction to Attributes.)
Finding Information in Tag Library
Contains two aids for locating a JATS element, attribute, an element’s context, and related information:
  • Index: Like a back-of-the-book Index: a list of JATS elements, attributes, parameter entities, and discussion topics linked to their Tag Library locations. The Index includes alternative words linked to the equivalent JATS term. (Non-JATS term to JATS term translation: for example, the term “author” will direct you to use the JATS element Contributor.) (Click on “Index” under “Finding Information in Tag Library” in the Navbar.)
  • Element Context Table: A table of where an element may be used. Provides, for each element, all the elements that can directly contain it. This is how to find out whether an element can be used in a particular context. (Click on “Element Context Table” under “Finding Information in Tag Library” in the Navbar.)
    Context information is also available on each Element page under the subheading “May be contained in” (within “Models and Context”).
Tagging Documents
How to use this Tag Set: descriptions and guidance for specific tagging issues. (See Tagging Documents.)
Common Tagging Practice
Essays discussing complex structures and the design choices involved in tagging, for example, affiliations or keywords, each of which involve numerous elements and attributes. These essays are important for learning to use this Tag Set well, and links to them are provided from elements and attributes to which they are especially relevant. (See Common Tagging Practice.)
Full Article Samples
Two full articles are provided in both PDF format and in XML according to this Tag Set. These are provided to help users understand the relationship between the article as displayed and the XML version of the article. (See Full Article Samples.)
An essay discussing Best practice for providing access for the visually and motor impaired and how specific JATS elements and attributes can be used to meet Accessibility requirements. (See Accessibility.)
Technical Details
Provides material for implementors and people modifying or installing the Tag Set (See Technical Details.)
Parameter Entities
Names (with occasional descriptions) and contents of the parameter entities in the JATS DTD modules. (Click on “Parameter Entities” in the Navbar.)
Change History: JATS 1.2 to 1.3
Describes changes made to the Tag Set from its release as ANSI/NISO JATS Version 1.2 (ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2019) until the current ANSI/NISO JATS Version 1.3 (ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2021), including the addition of new elements and/or attributes, changes in content models, changes in attribute values, etc. (See Change History: JATS 1.2 to 1.3.)
Modifying this Tag Set
Description of JATS’ modular design and guidance on making new tag sets based on this Tag Set or to modifying the Suite Tag Sets. (See Modifying this Tag Set.)
About a JATS Namespace
Discussion of JATS’ lack of a namespace for its elements and attributes. For implementors needing to assign a namespace, a URI for such a namespace is provided. (See About a JATS Namespace.)
Supporting Documentation Home
The Journal Publishing Tag Set is available in three forms: an XML Document Type Definition (DTD), a W3C XML Schema (XSD), and a RELAX NG Schema (RNG). Each of these formats is available in two forms: a zipped file containing a downloadable version of the schema (often in multiple files), and a readable/browsable version in which the internal markup has been escaped.
Using the Tag Library to Learn This Tag Set
If you want to learn about the elements and the attributes in this Tag Set so you can tag documents or learn how the journal article model is constructed, here is a good way to start.
  • Read the Tag Library General Introduction, taking particular note of the next section that describes the parts of the Tag Library so you will know what resources are available.
  • Next, if you do not know the symbols used in the Hierarchy Diagrams, read the “Key to the Near & Far® Diagrams”.
  • Scan the Hierarchy Diagrams to get a good sense of the top-level elements and their contents. (Find what is inside an <article>, now what is inside each of the four large pieces of an article, keep working your way down.)
  • Pick an element from one of the diagrams. (Look up the element in the Elements Section to find the full element, the definition, usage notes, content allowed inside the element, where the element may be used, and a list of any attributes. Look up one of the attributes to find its full name, usage notes, potential values, and whether it has a default.)
Finally, if you are interested in conversion from a particular source:
  • Look at an article in a printed or online journal (and look at the DTD/schema for the other journal if there is one).
    • Can all the information you want to store from an article fit into the models shown in the diagrams?
    • Do you have, or know how to get, all the information the models require? Will that information always be available for documents that are complete and correct?
    • How difficult will it be to identify the parts of the information using the elements and attributes described in these models? Would changes to one or more models make this easier?
  • Now look at some non-article content, such as a news column, a book review, or some letters to the editor. Are there tags to handle all these article types and all their components?
Terms and Definitions
Elements are nouns, like “speech” and “speaker”, that represent components of journal articles, the articles themselves, and accompanying metadata.
Attributes hold facts about an element, such as which type of list (e.g., numbered, bulleted, or plain) is being requested when using the List (<list>) tag, or the name of a pointer to an external file that contains an image. Each attribute has both a name (e.g., @list-type) and a value (e.g., “bullet”).
Data about the data, for example, bibliographic information. The distinction is between metadata elements which describe an article (such as the name of the journal in which an article was published or the article title) versus elements which contain the textual and graphical content of the article.
Tag Library Typographic Conventions
<alt-text> The tag name of an element (written in lower case with the entire name surrounded by “< >”)
Alternate Text Name (for a figure, etc.) The element name (long descriptive name of an element) or the descriptive name of an attribute (written in title case, with important words capitalized, and the words separated by spaces)
@name The “@” sign before a name indicates an attribute name.
must not Emphasis to stress a point