<degrees> Degree(s)

Academic titles or professional certifications displayed following a personal name (for example, “MD”, “PhD”).


This element is used inside container elements about the person, such as the <contrib> element or the <speaker>. This element relates only to people, and typically follows the name of a person.
As part of information about a contributor, the <suffix> element should be used for parts of people’s names (for example, “Jr.”), not for degrees. The academic degrees are part of the information that is known about a contributor, not part of the name of the contributor, and should take the <degrees> element. Degree and certification information may be placed directly following the person’s name within the contributor information:
<contrib contrib-type="..." corresp="yes">

Best Practice In Citations

When a bibliographic citation includes information about the degrees held by a cited author, those degrees should typically be treated as text and not tagged.
Related Elements
This element is not related to the similarly named MathML <degree> element, which is a mathematical term for angles and relationships and does not relate to people or education.

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  degrees      (#PCDATA %degrees-elements;)*                >
Expanded Content Model


Tagged Sample

In <contrib>

  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <given-names>Michael Q.</given-names></name>
   <aff id="UWW">
    <institution>Department of Pathobiology
     University of WallieWash</institution>
    <addr-line>Oberlin, Washington 96204</addr-line>

  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <given-names>James C.</given-names></name>
   <degrees>Ph D</degrees>
   <aff id="affKalakukko">Kalakukko Corporation</aff>
    <institution>Kalakukko Corporation</institution>
    <addr-line>17 West Jefferson St.</addr-line>
    <addr-line>Suite 207</addr-line>
    <addr-line>New South Finland, MD 20856.</addr-line>
    <phone>(301) 754-5766</phone>
    <fax>(301) 754-5765</fax>