Tag Set and Suite Naming Conventions

Element and Attribute Naming Rules

  • CASE — All XML names originating in this Tag Set or in the Suite are to be in lower case. Such names include element names, attribute names, parameter entity names, notation names, and IDs. The casing and interior punctuation of element-type names, attribute names, and parameter entity names inherited from PUBLIC models (such as the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired table model, the MathML Tag Set, or the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model) are unchanged. That means that they occur in the case in which they were found in the original module, and so may be in mixed case or upper case (e.g., %Flow.mix;).
  • MULTI-WORD NAMES — When two or more words are concatenated into an element name, attribute name, or parameter entity name, a hyphen is placed between the words, for example, <verse-group>, <index-entry>, <book-word-count>.
  • WORD STANDARDIZATION — Abbreviations may be used when words are used in combination. When a word stands alone as a name, it is not abbreviated. Thus, the element <conference> uses the full word “conference”, but the conference combinations (such as <conf-theme> and <conf-num>) use the abbreviation “conf”. Abbreviations are standardized so that, for example, “figure” is always used as “fig” (as in the element <fig-group>) and group is not abbreviated (as in the elements <fig-group>, <kwd-group>, and <fn-group>).
  • EMPHASIS — The typographic emphasis elements are usually spelled out in full, for example, <bold> (rather than “<b>”), <italic>, and <underline> instead of being differentiated using attribute values on an element such as <emphasis>. Superscript and subscript are not considered to be purely typographic, and each is a separate element: <sub> and <sup>.
The following table contains a growing list of abbreviations/names to be used in combined tag names (element type names), attribute names, and parameter entity names. (Words in the list below that are not abbreviated are displayed in italics.)
affiliation aff
alternatives alternatives
article article
attribution attrib
author author
biography bio
chemical chem
communication communication
conference conf
contributor/contribution contrib
corresponding corresp
count count
cross x (no hyphen)
definition def
description desc
display disp
editor editor
end end
equal equal
external ext
figure fig
first f (no hyphen; <fpage>)
footnote fn
formula formula
government gov
graphic graphic
group/grouping group
heading/header head
identifier/ID id
inline inline
institution institution
item item
journal journal
keyword kwd
last l (no hyphen; <lpage>)
link link
list list
location loc
material material
metadata meta
number num
page page
paragraph p
prefix prefix
proceedings proceedings
publication pub
publisher publisher
quote quote
reference ref
related related
section sec
sequence/sequential seq
series series
size size
standard std
start start
statement statement
structure struct
subject subj
subscript sub (rather than “inferior”)
suffix suffix
superscript sup (rather than “superior”)
supplement supplement
supplementary supplementary
table table
title title
translated/translator trans
type type
underline underline
version version
volume vol
word word
wrapper wrap (Note: BITS-book-part-wrapper is an exception to this abbreviation, since it is a top-level element.)

File Naming Conventions

This Tag Library describes the components for the BITS Tag Set. This Tag Set is described in a DTD, an XSD schema, and a RELAX NG schema. For the DTD, the base DTD module (delivered as the file BITS-book2.dtd) calls in all the other DTD fragment modules as external parameter entities. Each module specific to this Tag Set (therefore, not part of the Suite) takes the prefix “BITS-bookcustom-” The same prefix has been followed in the other two constraint languages/schemas.
Each DTD and DTD fragment module has been assigned a unique formal public identifier (fpi). File names are never referenced directly in the comments in the DTD; the file is referred to by the name of the external parameter entity, which names the fpi and a system name for the file. The external parameter entity has been set to the initial delivery filename, minus the version number.
The BITS Book DTD, the individual DTD-fragment modules of this Tag Set and the Suite, the XSD schema modules, and the RELAX NG schema modules have been given DOS/Windows 3-digit suffixes indicating their type:
A module that can be used as the top level of an XML hierarchy. Used for the BITS Book Tag Set top level, BITS-book2.dtd, but also taken unchanged for public tag set modules that have been included in this Tag Set such as the MathML Tag Set and the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table Module.
A DTD fragment for incorporation into a full DTD. May contain element declarations, entity declarations, etc., for example, JATS-funding1.ent.
A DTD fragment for incorporation into a full DTD. May contain element declarations, entity declarations, etc. This extension has the same meaning as *.ent and is only used to maintain the extension names dictated by the inclusion of PUBLIC tag set and/or schema fragments, for example, mathml3-qname-1.mod.
A W3C XML Schema (XSD) schema module, for example, BITS-book2.xsd.
A RELAX NG schema module, for example, BITS-book2.rng and BITS-book-part2.ent.rng.
All BITS (and NISO JATS) versions reflect the major version number in the file name. As an example, a module whose name would be list.ent is named for the latest JATS version JATS-list1.ent (to indicate that it is part of the ANSI/NISO JATS 1.1 release). (Note: The parameter entity that references the file is still called &list.ent;, but it now references a file with the JATS- prefix and the version number embedded, namely JATS-list1.ent.)
The current plan is that future dot releases (0.3, 0.4, etc.) will not be reflected in the filename (therefore, not BITS-book2-3.dtd, JATS-list1-2.ent, etc.) but will remain named with a single digit (e.g., “2”) as BITS-book2.dtd, JATS-list1.ent), which will not change until the next major (non-dot) release (BITS-book3.dtd).