Used to mark text that should always appear in a serif font.


Ensuring that a text component remains in a serif font is typically used when marking a physics constant or mathematical variable for an equation, expression, formula, chemical expression, or reaction.
Emphasis as a Toggle Switch: The @toggle attribute controls the behavior of this element. When the value of @toggle is set to “no”, the emphasized text remains in the serif font, no matter what the surrounding text does. When the value of @toggle is “yes”, if the surrounding text is set to the same emphasis style, the text within this element will change to another emphasis style, so that the text will always be typographically distinct from its surroundings. The default @toggle for this element is “no”, remain serif at all times.


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  serif       (#PCDATA %emphasized-text;)*                  >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | serif | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | index-term | index-term-range-end | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*


This element may be contained in:

<abbrev>, <addr-line>, <aff>, <alt-title>, <anonymous>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <award-id>, <bold>, <book-title>, <book-volume-id>, <book-volume-number>, <chapter-title>, <chem-struct>, <code>, <collab>, <comment>, <compound-kwd-part>, <compound-subject-part>, <conf-acronym>, <conf-loc>, <conf-name>, <conf-num>, <conf-sponsor>, <conf-theme>, <copyright-statement>, <corresp>, <data-title>, <date-in-citation>, <def-head>, <degrees>, <disp-formula>, <edition>, <element-citation>, <email>, <etal>, <ext-link>, <fax>, <fixed-case>, <funding-source>, <funding-statement>, <given-names>, <gov>, <inline-formula>, <inline-supplementary-material>, <institution>, <issue>, <issue-part>, <issue-title>, <italic>, <kwd>, <label>, <license-p>, <meta-name>, <meta-value>, <mixed-citation>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <nav-pointer>, <on-behalf-of>, <overline>, <p>, <part-title>, <patent>, <phone>, <prefix>, <preformat>, <price>, <product>, <publisher-loc>, <publisher-name>, <rb>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <role>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <see>, <see-also>, <see-also-entry>, <see-entry>, <self-uri>, <series>, <serif>, <sig>, <sig-block>, <source>, <speaker>, <std>, <std-organization>, <strike>, <string-conf>, <string-date>, <string-name>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subject>, <subtitle>, <suffix>, <sup>, <supplement>, <surname>, <target>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <textual-form>, <th>, <title>, <trans-source>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>, <unstructured-kwd-group>, <uri>, <verse-line>, <version>, <volume>, <volume-id>, <volume-series>, <volume-title>, <x>, <xref>


<p>... associated with cardiovascular disease, stroke, 
and acute myocardial mortality in a nonlinear, reverse 
<serif>J</serif>-shaped manner ...</p>