Used to mark text that should appear in an italic or slanted font.


Emphasis as a Toggle Switch: The @toggle attribute controls the behavior of this element. When the value of @toggle is set to “no”, the emphasized text remains in the requested style, no matter what the surrounding text does. When the value of @toggle is “yes”, if the surrounding text is set to the same emphasis style, the text within this element will change to another emphasis style, so that the text will always be typographically distinct from its surroundings.
Using the element <italic> as an example, setting the @toggle attribute to “no” would mean that a material marked as italics will always be italics, even in an italic context. In contrast, if the @toggle attribute was set to “yes” on the <italic> element, if the formatting context imposes italics (whether due to another <italic> element, a stylesheet, some CSS, or other means), then the italics would be turned off within that context, making the emphasized text emphasized by contrast, but not italic. The <italic> element would still produce italics everywhere else.


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  italic       (#PCDATA %emphasized-text;)*                 >

Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | serif | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | index-term | index-term-range-end | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*


This element may be contained in:

<abbrev>, <addr-line>, <aff>, <alt-title>, <anonymous>, <article-title>, <attrib>, <award-id>, <bold>, <book-title>, <book-volume-id>, <book-volume-number>, <chapter-title>, <chem-struct>, <code>, <collab>, <comment>, <compound-kwd-part>, <compound-subject-part>, <conf-acronym>, <conf-loc>, <conf-name>, <conf-num>, <conf-sponsor>, <conf-theme>, <copyright-statement>, <corresp>, <data-title>, <date-in-citation>, <def-head>, <degrees>, <disp-formula>, <edition>, <element-citation>, <email>, <etal>, <ext-link>, <fax>, <fixed-case>, <funding-source>, <funding-statement>, <given-names>, <gov>, <inline-formula>, <inline-supplementary-material>, <institution>, <issue>, <issue-part>, <issue-title>, <italic>, <kwd>, <label>, <license-p>, <meta-name>, <meta-value>, <mixed-citation>, <monospace>, <named-content>, <nav-pointer>, <on-behalf-of>, <overline>, <p>, <part-title>, <patent>, <phone>, <prefix>, <preformat>, <price>, <product>, <publisher-loc>, <publisher-name>, <rb>, <related-article>, <related-object>, <role>, <roman>, <sans-serif>, <sc>, <see>, <see-also>, <see-also-entry>, <see-entry>, <self-uri>, <series>, <serif>, <sig>, <sig-block>, <source>, <speaker>, <std>, <std-organization>, <strike>, <string-conf>, <string-date>, <string-name>, <styled-content>, <sub>, <subject>, <subtitle>, <suffix>, <sup>, <supplement>, <surname>, <target>, <td>, <term>, <term-head>, <textual-form>, <th>, <title>, <trans-source>, <trans-subtitle>, <trans-title>, <underline>, <unstructured-kwd-group>, <uri>, <verse-line>, <version>, <volume>, <volume-id>, <volume-series>, <volume-title>, <x>, <xref>

Example 1

For a foreign phrase:
<ref id="c35">
<p>The geometric optimization and electronic transport properties are 
all calculated by a developed <italic>ab-initio</italic> software package 
Atomistix ToolKit, which is based on the spin-polarized density-functional 
theory combined with the non-equilibrium Greens functions. ...</p>
<p>The <italic>Escherichia coli argU</italic> gene encodes a minor arginine
tRNA, tRNA<sup arrange="stack">Arg</sup><sub arrange="stack">UCU</sub>,
which corresponds to the rare codon AGA and possibly AGG ...</p>

Example 2

For variable names:
<table-wrap id="t2" orientation="portrait" position="float">
<label>Table II.</label>
<p>Models to approximate the bound frequencies as waves 
in X→M (<inline-graphic id="g1" xlink:href="d1"/>: Rotational, 
<inline-graphic id="g2" xlink:href="d2"/>: Vibrate in <italic>y</italic> 
direction, <inline-graphic id="g3" xlink:href="d3"/>: Vibrate in
<italic>x</italic> direction, <inline-graphic id="g4" xlink:href="d4"/>: 
Vibrate mainly in <italic>y</italic> direction including a small 
portion of vibration in <italic>x</italic> direction, 
<inline-graphic id="g5" xlink:href="d5"/>: Vibrate mainly in 
<italic>x</italic> direction including a small portion of vibration 
in <italic>y</italic> direction).</p>
<table border="1">...</table>