Additional material added to part of a book (not to a whole book) that typically follows the body of the document. This is ancillary or supporting material, not a direct continuation of the text of the book portion.


Usage: A typical appendix might be a table (or set of tables), maps, notes, etc. appended to the base document.
An appendix will usually begin with some sort of title, so that, for example, a Table of Contents can be automatically generated. However, this Tag Set does not require that an appendix be tagged with either a <title> or a <label>. An appendix may, of course, be tagged with both.

Related Elements

This element is similar to (but not the same as) the BITS book-level appendix (<book-app>) element. In brief, an Appendix (<app>) is an appendix for a book part while a Book Appendix (<book-app>) is an appendix for an entire book. In more detail:
  • An Appendix (<app>) is section-level component of a book part such as a chapter or a JATS article and is placed into the back matter (<back>) of that chapter.
    An appendix (<app>), as a section-like object, takes a title (<title>) like a seection title. The identifier for an Appendix is the <object-id> element at the start of the <app> followed by any section-level metadata. Also in an <app>, the copyrights and licenses are allowed both as part of the initial metadata and as a display component at the end of the appendix.
    Conversion Note: If an article-type appendix (<app> were to be converted into a book-level appendix (<book-app>), the back matter-like elements loose at the end of the appendix (such as (<ref-list>, <fn-group>, <glossary>, and <sig-block>) would need to be wrapped in a back matter (<back>) element.
  • A Book Appendix (<book-app>) is an appendix that is a book-part-level component of a book and is found in the back matter of the whole book (<book-back>).
    Book Appendices (<book-app>) are full book parts that may have their own contributors, funding information, publisher information, and other book-part-level metadata. Thus a book-level appendix has a <title> (inside a <title-group>) and the identifier(s) for a this appendix are held in the <book-part-id> element in the book part metadata (<book-part-meta>). Also in whole book appendices, the copyrights and licenses are only allowed as part of the initial book-part metadata.


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  app          %app-model;                                  >

Expanded Content Model

((object-id)*, (sec-meta?, label?, title?, subtitle*, alt-title*, (address | alternatives | answer | answer-set | array | boxed-text | chem-struct-wrap | code | explanation | fig | fig-group | graphic | media | name-address-wrap | preformat | question | question-wrap | question-wrap-group | supplementary-material | table-wrap | table-wrap-group | disp-formula | disp-formula-group | def-list | list | tex-math | mml:math | p | related-article | related-object | ack | disp-quote | speech | statement | verse-group | x)*, (sec)*, (notes | fn-group | glossary | ref-list | sig-block)*), permissions?)


The following, in order:

This element may be contained in:


<title>The Bipolar Seesaw.</title>
<p>The evidence for the antiphasing of the millennial-duration climate
changes occurring on the Antarctic continent ...</p>