Representation, usually numerical, of a calendar year. (The @calendar attribute can be used to indicate which calendar, e.g., Gregorian, Thai Buddha, or Japanese.)


Usage: In addition to being used for the year of publication, the <year> is also used to record “historical” events in the publishing cycle (<pub-history>), for example, the year the document was released as a preprint or last revised.
The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the book or book part, and as part of the description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>).
Best Practice: When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “2015”.
Related Essay: For a discussion on the use of <year>, see Dates in Citations.

Related Elements

Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element is used to name the date of publication. The elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe the date a cited resource was published. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).


Content Model

<!ELEMENT  year         (#PCDATA)                                    >


Text, numbers, or special characters

This element may be contained in:

Example 1

In metadata, as part of a lifecycle (<pub-history>) date:
<contrib contrib-type="author">
<collab collab-type="committee">Technical Committee ISO/TC 108, 
Subcommittee SC 2</collab>
<fpage seq="1">1</fpage>
<date date-type="approved" iso-8601-date="2012-06-01">

Example 2

In metadata, in both publication date and publication history dates:
<pub-date date-type="publication" 
<pub-date date-type="publication" 
<date date-type="received" 
<date date-type="rev-request" 
<date date-type="rev-received" 
<date date-type="accepted" 

Example 3

In an element-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing removed):
<ref id="B8">
<person-group person-group-type="author">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
<source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>

Example 4

In a mixed-style bibliographic reference (punctuation and spacing preserved):
<ref id="B8">
<mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
<article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
services for the chronically ill: a randomized
experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
<year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>;<volume>18</volume>:
<pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.

Example 5

Date showing a Japanese year:
<date date-type="received" calendar="Japanese"