pub-id-type Type of Publication Identifier

Type of publication identifier, such as a DOI or a publisher’s identifier.


Attribute Best Practice

Type of Identifier

While the values of the @pub-id-type attribute are unconstrained, Best Practice is to reserve the @pub-id-type value for the specific type of the external identifier (such as a DOI or PMID) or for a generic type of identifier (such as a publisher’s identifier, an aggregator’s or archive’s identifier, the identifier assigned by an indexing or hosting service, or similar). The values for @pub-id-type are unconstrained and may take any value.

Authority for Identifier

The attribute @assigning-authority should name the organization or system that assigned the identifier or administers the identifier (such as Crossref, OCLC, GenBank, Figshare).
The @pub-id-type attribute can be used in several contexts:
  • as part of the article metadata defined inside the element <article-meta> (for example, on the <article-id> element, which holds an identifier for the entire article);
  • inside a bibliographic citation element such as <mixed-citation> or <element-citation> (for example, on the <pub-id> element, which identifies a publication cited in a bibliographic reference list);
  • on an object identifier element (<object-id>); and
  • on an issue or volume identifier (for example, on the <issue-id> element, which identifies an issue).
Case in Attribute Values
Upper/lower/mixed case in attribute values for organizations and identifier types is likely to be variable and thus unreliable for search/discovery. If possible, JATS recommends a case-insensitive search for such values. For example, if an identifier type is a DOI, many publishers will use “doi” (to keep all attribute values lower case), while others will use “DOI” (because that is the native language acronym). Adding to this variability are identifiers that change over time. Expect to find the organization Crossref in values as “Crossref” (the currently preferred organization name), “CrossRef” (the previously preferred organization name), or “crossref” (for publishers who prefer all lower case for attributes).
Historical Note
Until JATS version 1.2d2 (2018), the @pub-id-type’s value conflated two meanings: the attribute could hold the type of identifier (such as a DOI or ISBN), or it could hold the name of the organization or system that defined or registered the identifier (such as Crossref). There was no way to state both that the identifier content of the element was a DOI and that the server was Figshare or Crossref. Although all the previous @pub-id-type values will continue to be accepted, for Best Practice, the @assigning-authority should name an organization, and the @pub-id-type attribute should describe the identifier type.
OPTIONAL on many elements; click for list and usage
Value Meaning
Text, numbers, or special characters The type of identifier, either as a specific type (such as “doi” or “std-designation”) or a generic identifier type (such as “publisher-id” or “archive”).
Restriction @pub-id-type is an optional attribute; there is no default.

Suggested usage

Best Practice: While this attribute may contain any text, the type of identifier should be named when the identifier is a known type, for example, DOI, ISBN, or Handle. The list below suggests some well-established types:
Generic identifier type for a unique identifier given to an item in a data repository. For example, a DNA or protein sequence record for tracking the sequence record and the associated sequence over time.
Generic identifier type for an identifier assigned by an archive or other repository (generally used with elements <object-id>, <issue-id>, and <volume-id>)
Archival Resource Key — a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) containing the word “ark” that is a multi-purpose identifier for information objects of any type
Generic identifier type for an article accession identifier for interchange and retrieval between archives
Obsolete PDB/CCDC identifier (may be present on older articles)
The value “custom” is used in versions of JATS that have a static list of values for the @pub-id-type attribute. To add a value to such a list, the identifier is given the type “custom” and a separate @custom-type attribute provides the typing value. There is no need for this mechanism in Archiving, since there are no restrictions on the value of @pub-id-type, but “custom” and @custom-type have both been included in Archiving so that documents valid to a stricter version of the JATS Tag Set will also be valid to Archiving.
Digital Object Identifier
Handle identifier, part of the Handle System for assigning, managing, and resolving persistent identifiers for digital objects and other resources on the Internet
Generic identifier type for an identifier assigned by an abstracting or indexing service (generally used with elements <object-id>, <issue-id>, and <volume-id>)
International Standard Book Number
Generic identifier type for an identifier assigned to a manuscript
NLM Medline identifier
PubMed Central identifier
PubMed Identifier (PubMed ID). See
Generic identifier type for a publisher’s identifier, such as an “article-id”, “artnum”, “identifier”, “article-number”, “pub-id”, etc.
Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (An ANSI/NISO Z39.56 code to uniquely identify volumes, articles, or other parts of a periodical. A journal article may have more than one SICI, for example, one for a print version and another for an electronic version.)
The official number of a standard, from a standards body such as ISO, NISO, IEEE, ASME, etc., for example, “Z39.96-2019
Tagged Samples
Differentiate <article-id>s in the article metadata
 <article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">1037</article-id>
 <article-id pub-id-type="doi"
 <article-id pub-id-type="pmid">11427581</article-id>
An article identifier assigned by Mathematical Reviews (MR)
 <article-id assigning-authority="mr"
A Zentralblatt MATH (zbMATH) article identifier
 <article-id pub-id-type="zbl">06451297</article-id>
Record the project-specific identifier for the issue
  <article-title>The Indian Medical Gazette</article-title>
 <pub-date pub-type="ppub" iso-8601-date="1866-01-01">...</pub-date>
 <volume-id pub-id-type="barcode" 
 <issue-id pub-id-type="archive" content-type="scantrac-id" 
Inside a citation for a print journal article, to name the identifier as a Crossref DOI
<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
 <pub-id pub-id-type="doi"
Cite a specific print version of an issue
 <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
  <string-name><surname>Ganster</surname>, <given-names>D. C.</given-names></string-name>, 
  <string-name><surname>Schubroeck</surname>, <given-names>J.</given-names></string-name>, 
  <string-name><surname>Sime</surname>, <given-names>W. E.</given-names></string-name>, 
  &amp; <string-name><surname>Mayes</surname>, <given-names>B. T.</given-names></string-name>. 
  <article-title>The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed 
  adults</article-title> [Monograph]. <source>Journal of Applied Psychology</source>, 
  <year iso-8601-date="1991">1991</year>; <volume>76</volume>(<issue>1</issue>):
  <fpage>143</fpage>-<lpage>168</lpage>. <issue-id assigning-authority="nlm" 
  pub-id-type="call-number">W1 IN249</issue-id>.</mixed-citation>