<rt> Ruby Textual Annotation

This element is one half of a Ruby annotation (<ruby>), and it contains the text that annotates the material in the Ruby Base (<rb>), which may be as small as a single character.


A Ruby textual annotation is an annotation, typically short, applied to a letter, word, phrase, or name that appears in narrative text. Ruby annotations can indicate, for example, pronunciation advice, notes for translation, semantic annotations, etc. Ruby is used with Japanese, for example, in Furigana, which typically uses Hiragana annotations on Kanji base text. Ruby is also used in Chinese Pīnyīn (a phonetic system for transcribing the sound of Chinese characters into Latin script) as well as for some Korean names. In display or print, the characters of a Ruby annotation are frequently placed above the characters they modify, in parentheses after the characters they modify, or to the right of vertically set text.
Structure of NISO JATS Ruby
The <ruby> element is an inline wrapper element that contains some of the document narrative text (inside a Ruby Base <rb> element) and associates that base text with a Ruby Textual Annotation (inside an <rt> element).

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters, zero or more
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  rt           (#PCDATA %rt-elements;)*                     >
Expanded Content Model


Tagged Samples
Multiple Ruby annotations
<p>... 畿内や西日本一帯では
Including English and Japanese translation notes
<p>... あの
 <ruby><rb>ロンドン警視庁</rb><rt xml:lang="en">Scotland Yard</rt></ruby>
 は霧の中に隠れていた。or あの
 <ruby><rb>ロンドン警視庁</rb><rt xml:lang="ja">ろんどんけいしちょう</rt>
 </ruby>は霧の中に隠れていた。 ...</p>
Ruby in English text
<p>In the midst of the document text, we find:
 and yet another example: