<mixed-citation> Mixed Citation

Bibliographic description of a work. Includes a combination of bibliographic reference elements and untagged text. Spacing and punctuation are preserved.


Although in this Tag Set, citations are allowed to float freely within the text of an article, most publishers require that the full citation be listed in a bibliographic reference list <ref-list> and only an <xref> be inserted into the text at the place of reference. Thus most commonly, citations are listed in a bibliographic reference list at the end of the article with each reference list item cited one or more times from within the article text.

Best Practice

Although this Tag Set does not enforce it, best practice is to tag as many of the following elements as possible within a <mixed-citation> to a journal article, so that PubMed Central, Crossref, or other matching service can make the journal citation into a live link:
The title of the journal in which the cited article was published. (For journal titles, publishers and archives typically establish authority lists, for example, in PubMed Central processing, the journal title source is usually the NLM title abbreviation of the journal name <source>Physiol Rev</source>.) For book citations, this is the title of the book: <source>Moby Dick</source>.
Title of the article (Use the <source> element for titles of books, reports, conference proceedings, etc.)
Number of the applicable volume of the journal
Issue number of the applicable issue
Page number on which the article starts
Surname (familial name) of an author or editor (This element is used inside a <name> element or <string-name> element which is repeated when multiple authors must be listed.)
The year of publication
The month of publication (if present)
The day of month of publication (if present)
The other elements may be tagged if desired.

Linking Best Practice

In order to make citations into live links, as much of the author and date information as is available should be preserved, even if it is not possible to tag all the elements just named. The most important date tag is <year>, and it should always be tagged if possible, for example, <year>2008</year>. The <day> and <month> tags are used more rarely; they are provided because some of the citation matching services can use the month and day information if it is available.

Information Typing Best Practice

The @publication-type attribute should be used to describe the kind of material is being cited, for example, to distinguish between journal articles, preprints, books, reviews, standards, patents, cited data, personal communications, and so on.
Historical Note
This element is one of the two elements that replace the <citation> element of previous versions of this Tag Set.
Related Elements
This <mixed-citation> element contains the bibliographic description of a work; the pointer to that description uses the <xref> element. These two elements are sometimes confused because in common language both may be called “citations”.
There are three kinds of citations in this Tag Set:
  • The element <element-citation>, which has element-only content, no interior punctuation or spacing, and allows the components of the citation to be in any order.
  • The element <mixed-citation>, which has textual content, with all interior punctuation and spacing preserved, and allows the components of the citation to be in any order.
  • Deprecated: The element <nlm-citation>, which has element-only content, no interior punctuation or spacing, and requires the components of the citation to be in a specific order. This element was used in previous versions of this Tag Set, and it is now deprecated.

Base Attributes


Models and Context
May be contained in
Any combination of:
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  mixed-citation
                        (#PCDATA | %citation-elements;)*             >
Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | inline-media | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | label | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | index-term | index-term-range-end | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | annotation | article-title | chapter-title | collab | collab-alternatives | comment | conf-acronym | conf-date | conf-loc | conf-name | conf-sponsor | data-title | date | date-in-citation | day | edition | email | elocation-id | etal | ext-link | fpage | gov | institution | institution-wrap | isbn | issn | issn-l | issue | issue-id | issue-part | issue-title | lpage | month | name | name-alternatives | object-id | page-range | part-title | patent | person-group | pub-id | publisher-loc | publisher-name | role | season | series | size | source | std | string-date | string-name | supplement | trans-source | trans-title | uri | version | volume | volume-id | volume-series | year | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x)*

Tagged Samples
Journal article
<article dtd-version="1.3">
   <ref id="B7">
    <mixed-citation publication-type="journal">
     <given-names>D</given-names></string-name>, and
     <article-title>The day hospital in the community care
     of the elderly</article-title>. <source>Gerontology 
     Clinic</source> <year iso-8601-date="1962">1962</year>;
<ref id="B14">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  <name><surname>Hart</surname> <given-names>JT</given-names>
  </name></person-group>. <source>A new kind of doctor: the 
  general practitioner&rsquo;s part in the health of the 
  community</source>. <publisher-loc>London</publisher-loc>:  
  <publisher-name>Merlin Press</publisher-name>, 
  <date iso-8601-date="1988" date-type="pub"><year>1988</year></date>.
Spanish with English translation
<ref id="G3">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
  <string-name><surname>Llanos De La Torre Quiralte</surname>
  <string-name><surname>Garijo Ayestaran</surname>
  <string-name><surname>Poch Olive</surname>
  <article-title xml:lang="es">Evolucion de la mortalidad
  infantil de La Rioja (1980-1998)</article-title>
  [<trans-title xml:lang="en">Evolution of the infant
  mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)</trans-title>].
  <source>An Esp Pediatr</source>. <year iso-8601-date="2001-11">2001</year>
  <fpage>413</fpage>-<lpage>420</lpage>. Figura 3, Tendencia
  de mortalidad infantil [Figure 3, Trends in infant
  mortality]; p. 418. Spanish.</mixed-citation>
<date-in-citation> holding copyright year
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print">
  <given-names>JY</given-names></string-name>. In:
  <part-title>Tobacco use</part-title>.
  <person-group person-group-type="editor">
  editors. <source>Clinical methods: the history, 
  physical, and laboratory examinations</source>.
  <publisher-loc>Stoneham (MA)</publisher-loc>:
  <publisher-name>Butterworth Publishers</publisher-name>;
  &copy;<date-in-citation content-type="copyright-year"
  p. <fpage>214</fpage>-<lpage>216</lpage>.</mixed-citation>
Data (figshare through DOI)
 <mixed-citation publication-type="data">Di Stefano B, Collombet S, 
  Graf T. <source>Figshare</source> <ext-link ext-link-type="doi" 
  (<year iso-8601-date="2014">2014</year>).</mixed-citation>
Journal article (showing <x>)
<ref id="CIT0001">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="journal">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  <string-name><surname>Adesope</surname><x>, </x>
  <given-names>O.&#x202f;O.</given-names></string-name><x>, </x>
  <string-name><surname>Lavin</surname><x>, </x>
  <given-names>T.</given-names></string-name><x>, </x>
  <string-name><surname>Thompson</surname><x>, </x>
  <given-names>T.</given-names></string-name><x>, &amp; </x>
  <string-name><surname>Ungerleider</surname><x>, </x>
  <x> (</x><year>2010</year><x>). </x>
  <article-title>A systematic review and meta-analysis of 
  the cognitive correlates of bilingualism</article-title><x>. </x>
  <source>Review of Educational Research</source><x>, </x>
  <volume>80</volume><x> (</x><issue>2</issue><x>), </x>
  <fpage>207</fpage><x>–</x><lpage>245</lpage><x>. doi: </x>
  <pub-id pub-id-type="doi">10.3102/0034654310368803</pub-id>
 <mixed-citation publication-type="audio">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  </person-group>. <part-title>Butterflies with Doug 
  Taron</part-title>. <source>The Show About Science</source>.
  <date date-type="published" iso-8601-date="2016-10-11">
  <date-in-citation content-type="access-date">Accessed 
  <month>October</month> <day>14</day>, 
  <year iso-8601-date="2016">2016</year></date-in-citation>. 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href=
Book (showing <x>)
<ref id="CIT0182">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  <string-name><surname>Larsen-Freeman</surname><x>, </x>
  <given-names>D.</given-names></string-name><x>, &amp; </x>
  <string-name><surname>Long</surname><x>, </x>
  </person-group><x> (</x><year>1991</year><x>). </x>
  <source>An Introduction to Second Language 
  Acquisition Research</source><x>. </x>
  <publisher-loc>London</publisher-loc><x>: </x>
Web with <date-in-citation> access date
<ref id="CIT0002">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="web">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  <string-name><surname>Ahmetašević</surname><x>, </x>
  </person-group><x>. “</x><article-title>Ambassador Kraak interview 
  about the Compact for Growth and Jobs</article-title><x>.” </x>
  <month>August</month><x> </x><day>6</day><x>, </x><year>2014</year><x>. </x>
  <uri xlink:href="http://bosniaherzegovina.nlembassy.org/news/2014/august/
  <x> (</x><comment>accessed</comment><x> </x>
  <date-in-citation content-type="access-date">September 30, 
Video within a journal
<ref id="b2">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="video">
  <part-title>The global burden of cancer 2013</part-title>.
  <date date-type="published" iso-8601-date="2015-05-28">
  <date-in-citation content-type="access-date">Accessed 
  <month>October</month> <day>13</day>, 
  <year iso-8601-date="2016">2016</year></date-in-citation>. 
  <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href=
  <comment>Author video interview for: Global Burden of 
  Disease Cancer Collaboration.</comment> <source>JAMA Oncol.</source> 
  <pub-id pub-id-type="doi">10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.0735</pub-id>
Reference with a <note>
<ref id="CIT009">
 <mixed-citation publication-type="book">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  <string-name><given-names>Hugues</given-names><x> </x>
  </person-group><x> (</x><year>1965</year><x>) </x>
  <source>Aufray chante Dylan</source><x>, </x>
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
  </person-group><x>, </x><year>1965</year><x>. </x>
  <comment>Re-released as a CD in</comment><x> </x>
  <year>2000</year><x>, </x><publisher-name>Barclay 
  Universal Music</publisher-name><x>. </x><x>Lyrics 
  by Pierre Delanoë and Hugues Aufray</x>
  <p>La fille du Nord (<italic>Girl of the North Country</italic>)</p>
  <p>Ce que je veux surtout (<italic>All I Really Want to Do</italic>)</p>
  <p>Ce n’était pas moi (<italic>I ain’t me Babe</italic>)</p>
  <p>Oxford town (<italic>Oxford Town</italic>)</p>
  <p>Corrina Corrina (<italic>Corrina Corrina</italic>)</p>
  <p>Cauchemar psychomoteur (<italic>Motorpsycho Nightmare</italic>)</p>
  <p>Les temps changent (<italic>The Times they are A-Changin’</italic>)</p>
  <p>La ballade de Hollis Brown (<italic>The Ballad of Hollis Brown</italic>)</p>
  <p>La mort solitaire de Hattie Carroll (<italic>The Lonesome Death of 
   Hattie Carroll</italic>)</p>
  <p>Dieu est à nos côtés (<italic>With God on Our Side</italic>)</p>
  <p>Le jour où le bateau viendra (<italic>When the Ship Comes in</italic>)</p>
  <p>Bonus tracks:</p>
  <p>L’homme orchestre (<italic>Mr. Tambourine Man</italic>)</p>
  <p>N’y pense plus, tout est bien (<italic>Don’t Think Twice, it’s 
   All 136 Jennifer Flint &amp; Pieter Lamers Right</italic>)
  <xref ref-type="fn" rid="fn21">21</xref></p>
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