<article-title> Article Title

Full title of an article.


The <article-title> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself and inside bibliographic citations. The title is nearly always in the original language of publication, but a publisher or archive may choose to place all article titles in one language, such as English, and use the translated title element to hold the original title (<trans-title>).
In Metadata
In the article metadata (<article-meta>), the article subtitle and title are identified with two different elements and tagged separately, using the <article-title> and <subtitle> elements.
In Citations
In bibliographic reference citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), this element contains the full title of a cited journal article. The subtitle cannot be preserved separately as this Tag Set identifies no cited-subtitle elements.
For references using either the <element-citation> element or the <nlm-citation> element, which do not permit untagged text, there are two choices:
For references using the <mixed-citation>, there are three choices:
  • The subtitle may be included with the title in the <article-title> element (or the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other titles),
  • The subtitle may be left as untagged characters within the text of the reference, or
  • The subtitle may be tagged as <named-content> with a @content-typesubtitle”.

Best Practice in Citations

Although this Tag Set cannot enforce either practice, retrieval performance will be enhanced if the subtitle for all cited material is consistently placed within the <article-title> element for journal articles and within the <source> element for book titles, proceedings titles, and other documents. When marked as either a <named-content> or left as untagged text, the subtitle is easy to lose to searching. It is also not always easy to identify, particularly with historical or foreign material, which part of a multipart title is the main title and which the subtitle.
Related Elements
There are several elements concerned with the title of an article, all contained within the container element <title-group> in the article metadata (<article-meta>):
  • The <article-title> is the full title of the article in the original language of the document.
  • The <subtitle> is a subordinate or auxiliary title that adds information to the full title or modifies the full title.
  • The <alt-title> is another version of an article title, usually created so that the title can be processed in a special way, for example, a short version of the title for use in a Table of Contents, an ASCII title, or a version of the title to be used in the right-running-head.
  • The <trans-title-group> is also a container element, inside the <title-group>, that holds together a translated title (<trans-title>) and its translated subtitle (<trans-subtitle>). The translated title is a version of the title translated into a language other than the original language of publication, and the matching subtitle is a version of the subtitle translated into a language other than the original language.

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Any combination of:
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  article-title
                        (#PCDATA %article-title-elements;)*          >
Expanded Content Model

(#PCDATA | email | ext-link | uri | inline-supplementary-material | related-article | related-object | hr | bold | fixed-case | italic | monospace | overline | overline-start | overline-end | roman | sans-serif | sc | strike | underline | underline-start | underline-end | ruby | alternatives | inline-graphic | inline-media | private-char | chem-struct | inline-formula | tex-math | mml:math | abbrev | index-term | index-term-range-end | milestone-end | milestone-start | named-content | styled-content | fn | target | xref | sub | sup | x | break)*

Tagged Samples
Inside article metadata
<article dtd-version="1.3">
   <article-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-10092260</article-id>
    <article-title>Systematic review of day hospital
     care for elderly people</article-title>
   <pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">
In citations
Mixed citation
  <ref id="B8">
    <article-title>Effects and costs of day-care 
    services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
    experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source>
    <year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>:
    <pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>.
Element citation
  <ref id="B8">
    <person-group person-group-type="author">
    <article-title>Effects and costs of day-care
     services for the chronically ill: a randomized
    <source>Medical Care</source>
    <year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
    <pub-id pub-id-type="publisher-id">WES-6772889</pub-id>
Related Resources