<year> Year

Representation, usually numerical, of a calendar year.


The @calendar attribute can be used to indicate the calendar (e.g., Gregorian, Thai Buddha, or Japanese) of the given year.
In addition to being used for the year of publication, the <year> is also used to record “historical” events in the publishing cycle, for example, the year the document was accepted or last updated.
The <year> element is used in two contexts: as a part of the metadata concerning the article itself, and as part of the description of a cited work inside a bibliographic reference (<element-citation> or <mixed-citation>).

Best Practice

When possible, the year should be expressed as a 4-digit number, for example, “1776”, “1924”, or “2015”.
Related Elements
Within citations (<element-citation> and <mixed-citation>), the <year> element names a year, typically four digits, for the publication date of the cited source. The elements <year>, <date>, <day>, <month>, and <season> may all be used to describe a date in a citation, both publication dates and other dates. Other dates inside a citation, such as a copyright date, the date on which the author accessed the resource, or a withdrawal date, should be tagged using <date-in-citation> with the @content-type attribute used to name the type of date (copyright, access-date, time-stamp, etc.).

Base Attributes

Models and Context
May be contained in
Text, numbers, or special characters
Content Model
<!ELEMENT  year         (#PCDATA)                                    >
Tagged Samples
Inside <history>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
   <collab collab-type="committee">Technical Committee ISO/TC 108, 
    Subcommittee SC 2</collab>
 <fpage seq="1">1</fpage>
  <date date-type="approved" iso-8601-date="2012-06-01">
Inside <history>, shown with <pub-date>
 <pub-date publication-format="print" date-type="pub" iso-8601-date="1999-03-27">
  <date date-type="accepted" iso-8601-date="1999-01-29">
In citations
Mixed citation
 <ref id="B8">
   <article-title>Effects and costs of day-care 
   services for the chronically ill: a randomized 
   experiment</article-title>. <source>Medical Care</source> 
   <year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>; <volume>18</volume>: 
   <pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>.
Element citation
 <ref id="B8">
   <article-title>Effects and costs of day-care services
    for the chronically ill: a randomized experiment</article-title>
   <source>Medical Care</source>
   <year iso-8601-date="1980">1980</year>
   <pub-id pub-id-type="pmid">6772889</pub-id>
Japanese year with <era>
<date date-type="received" calendar="Japanese" 
Related Resources